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2022, Vol.49 No.4

Supervised by:China Association for Science and Technology

Co-sponsored by:Chinese Society for Horticultural Science and Institution of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science

Editor-in-Chief:Sun Rifei

Edited and Published by:Editorial Office of Acta Horticulturae Sinica




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Research Papers

  • Simulation Analysis of Effects of Shoot Type Composition on Canopy Light Interception Efficiency and Photosynthetic Productivity in Apple Trees
  • ZHANG Xiaoyun, TANG Yuwei, WANG Kai, ZHANG Dong, YANG Weiwei
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 709-722. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-1051
  • Abstract ( 253 ) HTML ( 220 ) PDF (2671KB) ( 220 )    
  • This research was conducted to study the effects of shoot types and their relative fractions on canopy light interception and photosynthetic capacities in both short-shoot-type‘Liquan Fuji’and long-shoot-type‘Regal Gala’apple trees. Three-dimensional(3D)virtual shoots for all shoot types and 3D virtual canopies for each cultivar were reconstructed by combining 3D digitizing and shoot- and leaf-scale allometric relationships. The RATP functional-structural plant model was used to estimate canopy photosynthetic productivity. The effects of relative fraction of bourse shoots and vegetative shoots on canopy light interception and photosynthetic productivity were investigated by in silico virtual experiments. The results showed that the reconstructed 3D virtual shoots had similar shoot leaf number and shoot leaf area compared to observed shoots in field,but the light interception efficiency was underestimated. The two-parameter Beta function was able to accurately describe the leaf inclination distribution for all shoot types. The leaf inclination of bourse leaves belonged to plagiophile and the leaves of other shoot types belonged to planophile. The higher internode length and leaf inclination angle for leaves of bourse and bourse shoots led to 8%-14% higher light interception efficiency compared to vegetative shoots. The ‘Liquan Fuji’had higher leaf dispersion than that of‘Regal Gala’,but with similar light interception efficiency. The canopy net photosynthetic rate and daily photosynthesis in‘Regal Gala’were higher than that of‘Liquan Fuji’regardless of under sunny or cloudy climate conditions. An increase in the fraction of bourse shoot increased the canopy light interception efficiency for both cultivars,and increased the canopy net photosynthetic rate and the total photosynthesis for‘Liquan Fuji’,exclusively under cloudy conditions. In summary,at the shoot scale,the leafy shoots developed from the flower buds have a significantly higher light interception than those developed from vegetative buds. At the canopy scale,increase in flower bud density could improve the canopy light interception efficiency and especially improve the photosynthetic productivity for short-shoot-type apple cultivar under cloudy conditions.

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  • The Embryo Rescue and Molecular Markers are Used to Breed New Seedless,Cold-Resistant Grapes
  • LI Shasha, YU Saisai, FU Yuheng, LUO Qiangwei, XU Yan, WANG Yuejin
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 723-738. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0141
  • Abstract ( 163 ) HTML ( 222 ) PDF (10855KB) ( 222 )    
  • New germplasms of seedless and cold-resistant grapes were cultivated by embryo rescue techniques after crossing in the field and by molecular marker-assisted selection using stenospermocarpic seedless grapes as the female parents and varieties of Chinese cold-resistant wild species or hybrids from Vitis vinifera × V. amurensis as the male parents. Among the 14 hybrid combinations,a total of 1 021 hybrid plantlets were obtained,among which 634 plantlets were obtained in the combination of‘Ruby Seedless’בBeibinghong’with the highest seedling rate of 18.13%. When‘Zuoyouhong’was the male parent,‘Flame Seedless’was suitable as female parent. When‘Beibinghong’and‘Xuelanhong’were as the male parent,‘Ruby Seedless’was suitable as female parent. When‘Beichun’as the male parent,‘Kunxiang Seedless’was suitable as female parent. A total of 132 lines related to seedlessness preliminary screened by the two seedless molecular markers SCF27 and GSLP1. A total of 190 lines related to cold-resistant were initially screened through the molecular marker S241-717. Among these hybrid progeny screened,59 lines possessed both seedless and cold-resistant traits. The grapevine cold-related genes CBF1,COR27 and ERD15 detected by qRT-PCR in the lines with or without cold-resistant traits of the hybrid progeny of‘Ruby Seedless’בBeibinghong’and‘Ruby Seedless’בXuelanhong’under cold treatment were differential expression,and the cold-related lines showed significant expression of the cold-resistant genes.

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  • Expression of E-type MADS-box Genes in Flower and Fruits and Protein Interaction Analysis in Chinese Jujube
  • GAO Weilin, ZHANG Liman, XUE Chaoling, ZHANG Yao, LIU Mengjun, ZHAO Jin
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 739-748. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0179
  • Abstract ( 118 ) HTML ( 125 ) PDF (2257KB) ( 125 )    
  • In order to study the function of E-type MADS-box genes in flower and fruit of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),their bioinformatics analysis,expression pattern,subcellular location and protein interaction in‘Jinsi Xiaozao’were studied systematically. A total of three E-type MADS-box genes were identified in the jujube genome,which are located in the three clades of SEP1/2,SEP3 and SEP4. Compared with homologous sequences of other species,they are very conservative in evolution. Three E-type genes expressed in jujube flowers and fruits. The expression of ZjSEP1/2 was relatively stable at different stages of flower development,ZjSEP3 and ZjSEP4 were highly expressed in the early stage of flower development. After phytoplasma infection,their expressions in phyllody,a typical diseased symptom, were inhibited dramatically. All three proteins were located in the nucleus. According to the results of yeast one-hybrid analysis,ZjSEP1/2 and ZjSEP3 proteins had transcriptional activation activity and could be used as transcription factors to regulate downstream genes,while ZjSEP4 didn’t have this activity. According to the yeast two-hybrid results,all three proteins could interact with A-type and C/D-type proteins. Both ZjSEP4 and ZjSEP1/2 could interact with itself,but ZjSEP3 couldn’t interact with itself. In summary,the three E-type genes play an important role in the development of jujube flowers,but they should have various regulatory modes. ZjSEP3 couldn’t form homodimers,while ZjSEP4 and ZjSEP1/2 could form homodimers. But all of three proteins could form heterodimers with A-type and C/D-type proteins.

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  • Optimization of Jujube Callus Transformation System and Application of ZjBRC1 in Regulating ZjYUCCA Expression
  • LI Yamei, MA Fuli, ZHANG Shanqi, HUANG Jinqiu, CHEN Mengting, ZHOU Junyong, SUN Qibao, SUN Jun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 749-757. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0292
  • Abstract ( 102 ) HTML ( 89 ) PDF (2374KB) ( 89 )    
  • The stem segment,leaves,cotyledon and hypocotyls from the same sour jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa)were used as the explants to induce callus. The optimum callus induction was obtained from cotyledon,hypocotyls and leaves in MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg · L-1 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D)and 0.4 mg · L-1 thidiazuron(TDZ). Furthermore,the callus transformation efficiency was 31.8% in leaves,25.6% in cotyledons,24.5% in hypocotyls and 23.8% in stem segments,respectively,after inoculating callus in the Agrobacterium infection solution with OD600 = 0.6-0.8 for 30 min. In addition,ZjBRC1,which was a homologue of CYC/TB1 TCP transcription factor BRC1 and the key repressor to control shoot branching,were fused to the N terminus of SRDX repressor domain. 35S::GFP and 35S::ZjBRC1-SRDX transgenic calli were obtained via the leaf-induced callus transformation system. qRT-PCR analysis showed that auxin biosynthetic genes ZjYUCCA7/10-3/10-4 were down-regulated while ZjYUCCA2/4 /6 were up-regulated in the 35S::ZjBRC1-SRDX transgenic calli.

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  • Identification and Functional Analysis of HAK/KUP/KT Family Genes in Pomegranate
  • ZHAO Jianrong, YANG Yuan, QIN Gaihua, LIU Chunyan, YU Qing, JIA Botao, SU Ying, CAO Zhen, LI Jiyu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 758-768. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0202
  • Abstract ( 116 ) HTML ( 92 ) PDF (2723KB) ( 92 )    
  • In order to fully understand the mechanism of K+ uptake,bioinformatics analysis and function study of related genes of HAK/KUP/KT family in pomegranate were carried out in this study. Eighteen of HAK/KUP/KT family genes each encoded 689-837 amino acids were identified from the pomegranate genome. The promoter region contains several regulatory elements related to stress,and the gene-coding proteins contain a K+ transport domain(GVVYGDLGTSPLY). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HAK/KUP/KT family genes of pomegranate,Arabidopsis thaliana,grape and pear could be divided into four clusters(Ⅰ-Ⅳ). RNA-seq analysis showed that most genes of cluster Ⅱ and cluster Ⅲ were expressed in different tissues of pomegranate,while PgrHAK5 in clusterⅠwas only specifically expressed in roots. qRT-PCR analysis showed that PgrHAK5 was highly expressed in roots,and its expression was induced by potassium deficiency stress. Subcellular localization indicated that the protein encoded by PgrHAK5 was localized on the plasma membrane,and PgrHAK5 can complement the defect of the yeast K+ transport mutant CY162,which suggest that PgrHAK5 play an important role in K+ transport in pomegranate roots.

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  • Comparison of Sterilization Methods for Kiwifruit Pollen and Its Effect on Fruit Quality
  • LI Li, FENG Dandan, PAN Hui, LI Wenyi, DENG Lei, WANG Zupeng, ZHONG Caihong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 769-777. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0329
  • Abstract ( 112 ) HTML ( 74 ) PDF (831KB) ( 74 )    
  • Pollen has been proved to be one of the main pathways for long-distance transmission of kiwifruit bacterial canker(Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae,Psa). Five physical sterilize methods including 60Co-γ irradiation,ozone,UV,microwave,water-bath heating(35,50,80,100 ℃),and eight chemical sterilize methods including ClO2,ethylicin,tetramycin,kasugamycin,cuprous oxide,amobam,zhongshengmycin and sliver nanoparticles were applied to analyze the effect to kiwifruit pollen. The index of Psa sterilization rate,pollen viability,fruit setting rate,single fruit weight and fruit quality were analyzed. The results showed that the sterilization rate and pollen viability of partial treatments are relatively low,such as UV,microwave,water-bath heating,ethylicin,tetramycin,kasugamycin and amobam solution. Other treatments caused the index including fruit setting rate,single fruit weight,size,fruit firmness,soluble solids,dry matter,vitamin C,soluble sugar and titratable acid content decreased significantly,such as 60Co-γ irradiation,ClO2,cuprous oxide,Zhongshengmycin and sliver nanoparticles. The optimum disinfection method is ozone with concentration of 642.85 mg · m-3 for 1 h,the Psa sterilization rate reached 99.52% while the decline rate of pollen viability was merely declined 2.92%. The fruit setting rate,fruit firmness,vitamin C,soluble sugar and titratable acid,single fruit weight,size,dry matter and soluble solids index decreased slightly without significant difference. Comprehensive analysis the cost,operability and environmental protection factors,ozone technology can be regarded as the most effective and safe method for kiwifruit pollen sterilization.

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  • Development and Application of Insertion-Deletion(InDel)Markers in Asparagus Bean Based on Whole Genome Re-sequencing Data
  • YANG Yi, LI Tingyao, LI Guojing, CHEN Hancai, SHEN Zhuo, ZHOU Xuan, WU Zengxiang, WU Xinyi, ZHANG Yan
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 778-790. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0347
  • Abstract ( 63 ) HTML ( 44 ) PDF (2886KB) ( 44 )    
  • Based on resequencing data on three asparagus bean accessions,a set of InDel markers were developed and validated. Nine hundred and eight-one highly polymorphic InDel loci were screened out with insert or deletion bases longer than 30 bp suitable for PAGE gel electrophoresis detection. Among them,165 markers with uniform distribution across the genome were selected and checked in six asparagus bean inbreed lines. The results showed that 162 primer pairs yielded 673 amplification bands,and 85 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism yielded 333 polymorphic bands,accounted for 49.48% in the total amplification bands. These 85 polymorphic InDel markers were further used for genetic diversity analyzing in 173 asparagus bean accessions,and a total of 333 loci were generated. The polymorphism information content(PIC)value ranged from 0.01 to 0.37,with an average value of 0.29,while the gene diversity index value ranged from 0.01 to 0.50,with an average value of 0.36,indicating a relatively narrowed genetic diversity among these accessions. Population structure analysis revealed that there are two groups existed in these accessions. Further,these markers helped to identified five real hybrids from six hybrid combinations. Taken together,the polymorphic InDel markers developed in this study can be widely used for asparagus bean genetic analysis and molecular marker assisted selection breeding.

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  • Cloning of U6 Promoters and Establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Gene Editing System in Eggplant
  • WANG Dan, WANG Mi, LIU Jun, ZHOU Xiaohui, LIU Songyu, YANG Yan, ZHUANG Yong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 791-800. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0265
  • Abstract ( 141 ) HTML ( 87 ) PDF (2674KB) ( 87 )    
  • Seven U6 RNAs were identified from the eggplant(Solanum melongena L.)genome based on the conserved U6 RNA sequence in Arabidopsis and the responding promoters were cloned by PCR amplification. GUS staining results showed that four SmU6 promoters(SmU6-1P,SmU6-2P,SmU6-4P,SmU6-7P)were capable of transcriptional activity. The CRISPR/Cas9 vectors with AtU6-P/SmU6-1P driving SmWRKY4 sgRNA were constructed. T0 plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of eggplant cotyledons. The DNA of T0 plants were extracted to amplify the target fragments,which were subsequently sequenced to analyze whether SmWRKY4 gene were edited or not. As a result,the CRISPR/Cas9 vector containing SmU6-1P could edit SmWRKY4 with an editing rate of 27.0%. However,no mutation was detected in T0 plants based on AtU6-P. These results indicated that the editing efficiency of eggplant U6 promoter was better than that of Arabidopsis U6 promoter in eggplant genetic transformation.

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  • Studies on Transcriptome During Fruiting Body Development of Lentinula edodes
  • SHEN Nan, ZHANG Jingcheng, WANG Chengchen, BIAN Yinbing, XIAO Yang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 801-815. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0660
  • Abstract ( 60 ) HTML ( 114 ) PDF (3740KB) ( 114 )    
  • Samples from different stages and tissues(pileus and stipe of fruiting body)during the development of Lentinula edodes were collected and sequenced. By transcriptomic analyses,we identified differentially expressed genes. Then,gene expression trend,gene co-expression network and differentially alternative splicing event were analyzed. Results showed that a large number of CAZyme genes were up-regulated in mycelia browning. Genes associated with signal transduction,such as photoreceptors,and genes related to melanin biosynthesis may also be involved in mycelia browning. Primordium formation may be associated with genes involved in environmental factor sensing,ribosome biogenesis,fungal cell wall remodeling,protein degradation and chromatin modification. Genes associated with DNA replication and protein degradation may play important roles in pileus development,while genes encoding glycoside hydrolases may function in pileus opening. Genes encoding carbonic anhydrase,chitinases,GH55 and cytochrome P450s may serve the functions in stipe elongation.

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  • Overexpression of Chrysanthemum indicum miR396a Gene in Arabidopsis Enhances Its Salt Tolerance
  • LIU Xiaowei, XIA Bin, LI Ziwei, YANG Yujia, CHEN Bin, ZHOU Yunwei, HE Miao
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 816-826. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0007
  • Abstract ( 86 ) HTML ( 74 ) PDF (5410KB) ( 74 )    
  • cin-miR396a precursor sequence and its promoter were cloned from Chrysanthemum indicum;the precursor sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis were performed;the promoter was analyzed for cis-acting elements. The genetic transformation of the cin-miR396a precursor sequence to Arabidopsis thaliana was further carried out,and the salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed. The results showed that cin-MIR396a was 145 bp in length,contained an intact stem-loop structure,and was evolutionarily closest to A. thaliana ath-MIR396a. The promoter region has multiple response elements such as light signal,methyl jasmonate,gibberellin,salicylic acid,and abscisic acid,and it is hypothesized that cin-MIR396a is involved in response and regulation under a variety of adversity stresses. Overexpression of the cin-miR396a precursor in A. thaliana can improve seed germination under salt stress and salt tolerance at the adult seedling stage,and cin-miR396a plays a positive regulatory role in A. thaliana in response to salt stress.

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  • Identification and Expression Analysis of Genes Related to DNA Methylation in Chrysanthemum × morifolium and C. nankingense
  • WANG Ying, AI Penghui, LI Shuailei, KANG Dongru, LI Zhongai, WANG Zicheng
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 827-840. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-1069
  • Abstract ( 68 ) HTML ( 96 ) PDF (1848KB) ( 96 )    
  • In this study,based on the transcriptome data of the traditional chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.)species‘Jinbeidahong’and the genome data of Chrysanthemum nankingense,the genes encoding DNA methylation-related enzyme were identified through bioinformatics from the‘Jinbeidahong’and C. nankingense,phylogenetic trees and gene expression were analyzed. Totally 13 DNA methyltransferase genes and 11 demethylase genes were identified from‘Jinbeidahong’,and 10 DNA methyltransferase genes and five demethylase genes were identified from C. nankingense. The evolutionary relationship demonstrated that C. lavandulifolium(Fisch. ex Trautv.)Ling et Shih were more closely associated with chrysanthemum‘Zijingling’‘Jinbeidahong’‘Hechengxinghuo’than C. nankingense and‘Quanxiangshuichang’. The transcripts levels of DNA methylation-related enzyme genes in multiple tissues and chrysanthemum varieties were quite different.

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  • The Heterologous Expression of Oncidium OnGI Promotes Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana
  • FANG Nengyan, FAN Ronghui, LUO Yuanhua, KONG Lan, LIN Rongyan, YE Xiuxian, LIN Bing, ZHONG Huaiqin, HUANG Minling
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 841-850. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0182
  • Abstract ( 55 ) HTML ( 51 ) PDF (1976KB) ( 51 )    
  • In this study,it was found that long-day condition could promote the flower bud differentiation of Oncidium under different photoperiod treatments. The OnGI gene of Oncidium was cloned,and its coding region was 3 483 bp long,encoding 1 161 amino acids. The results of multiple sequence alignment showed that it had the highest homology with Dendrobium nobile DnGI(86.57%). The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that it was classified into the same group with other orchids. Tissue expression analysis showed that the expression of OnGI was the highest in flowers,especially at the initial stage of bud formation,and in leaves at different growth stages,the expression of OnGI peaked at the stage of flower bud differentiation. Under different photoperiod conditions,the expression pattern of OnGI was different,similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The results of subcellular localization showed that OnGI was localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of OnGI in Arabidopsis thaliana could lead to earlier flowering. Based on the above results,we speculate that there may be a similar photoperiod regulation mechanism of GI expression in Arabidopsis thaliana and to regulate plant flowering.

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  • Study on Early External Identification Mark of Strain Degeneration During Successive Transfer Culture of Cordyceps militaris
  • JIANG Wancen, WANG Chenlu, ZHU Zhengzhou, ZHAO Yingming, WANG Shuo, FAN Wenli, LI Tianlai
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 851-860. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0864
  • Abstract ( 52 ) HTML ( 23 ) PDF (3764KB) ( 23 )    
  • Cordyceps militaris W5 strain was used to investigate changes of colony morphology,cell ultrastructure and reactive oxygen species(ROS)content during successive transfer culture by every eight days,aiming to reveal early external identification markers of degradation. The results showed that the degradation of C. militaris W5 strain was a gradual process. Changes of colony morphology,mycelium and spore morphology began to appear in the third generation during successive transfer culture. Rhythm rings,color changes together with constricted and sunken hyphae were the significant external characteristics of the third generation,which could be considered as early colonial morphology identification marker of degradation in C. militaris W5 strain. During the successive transfer culture of C. militaris W5 strain,the following phenomena gradually occurred:cell walls of mycelia became thinner,cell nucleus became larger,mitochondria swelled and deformed,vacuoles became bigger,lomasomes reduced,spherosome dissolved,fat droplets and osmophilic granules formed. The degradation degree of W5 strain could be estimated by whether nucleolus appeared in cell nucleus,lomasomes appeared in cell,as well as vacuolar fusion and autophagy occurred in cell. From the third generation,color of mycelial cells became deep after NBT staining,indicating the increase of reactive oxygen species content. H2O2 content in the third generation was significantly higher than that in the first two generations. Based on the close relationship between mitochondria and reactive oxygen species,it was believed that the deformation and reduction of mitochondria might be an important reason for the degradation of C. militaris W5 strain.

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Research Notes

  • Effects of Citrus Yellow Vein Clearing Virus on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Lemon
  • WANG Ying, QIN Yangyang, ZENG Ting, LIAO Ping, ZHANG Wei, ZHOU Yan, ZHOU Changyong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 861-867. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0391
  • Abstract ( 60 ) HTML ( 52 ) PDF (1108KB) ( 52 )    
  • Three-year-old Eureka lemon seedlings citrus yellow vein clearing virus(CYVCV)infection were used as test materials. After the seedlings showed typical symptoms such as yellowing and vein clearing,the following parameters as chlorophyll content,chlorophyll fluorescence,photosynthetic parameters and enzyme activities of lemon leaves etc.,were measured or monitored,respectively. The results showed that chlorophyll content,net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),potential photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fo)and maximum photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm)in CYVCV infected lemon had been significantly reduced,whereas the initial fluorescence(Fo),catalase activity(CAT)and malondialdehyde(MDA)content had been significantly increased. There was no significant changes in the activities of peroxidase(POD)and superoxide(SOD)dismutase. After infection it was found that,the chloroplasts swelled and deformed due to the increase of starch grains,the stroma and grana lamellas were loose by using transmission electron microscope(TEM),and a large number of osmophilic granules were observed. The results indicated that CYVCV infection destroyed the chloroplast structure and reduced the photosynthesis in lemon leaf.

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  • Anatomical Observation on the Graft Union Between Potato and Wolfberry
  • QI Lipan, LI Yue, WANG Lei, FENG Yan, WANG Kuan, YIN Jiang, GUO Huachun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 868-874. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0198
  • Abstract ( 127 ) HTML ( 67 ) PDF (4953KB) ( 67 )    
  • In order to reveal the graft union process between potato and wolfberry,anatomical observation of potato/wolfberry grafting system was carried out using paraffin section technique. The results showed that the potato/wolfberry grafting system grew vigorously and could complete the entire reproductive process. The union process of potato/wolfberry grafting could be divided into four stages:(1) isolation layer generation period,5 d after grafting,an isolation layer was formed at the grafting interface;(2) callus formation period,9 d after grafting,the isolation layer cells dedifferentiated,finally callus was formed;(3) callus differentiation stage,13 d after grafting,the callus differentiated,forming callus bridge;(4) new vascular tissue formation period,17 d after grafting,new phloem,xylem and vascular bundle bridges were formed which made the rootstock and scion fully combined,and the union process was finished.

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  • Effects of Dwarf Close Planting on Growth and Yield of Tomato Under East-West Cultivation in Greenhouse
  • CUI Dongyu, LI Changqing, SUN Yanxin, WANG Jiqing, ZOU Guoyuan, YANG Jungang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 875-884. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0070
  • Abstract ( 73 ) HTML ( 49 ) PDF (921KB) ( 49 )    
  • The field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different planting densities on the growth,yield and quality of greenhouse tomato under east-west cultivation in order to provide technical support for the light,simple,high-quality and efficient production of protected vegetables. In this experiment,tomato was planted in east-west ridging suitable for greenhouse mechanized operations. Two factors,density and different locations,were set. The main factors were common sparse planting(33 000 plants · hm-2 with four ears of fruit)and dwarf close planting(66 000 plants · hm-2 with three ears of fruit),and the secondary factor was planting bed treatments in four different locations. The results showed that there were significant differences in environmental conditions of greenhouse at different locations. The soil temperature in the north bed was 0.3-1.3 ℃ higher than that in the south bed,but the light intensity was 39.7%-49.0% lower than that in the south bed. The variation of soil moisture and EC values at the same position was small. The stem diameter in the south bed treated with close planting was significantly higher than that in the north bed at seedling stage. The yield of tomato in the south bed was higher than that in the north bed,increasing by 12.8%-30.1%,and the yield of the close planting treatment was significantly higher than that in the sparse planting treatment,increasing by 27.7%. Compared with sparse planting,close planting did not decrease fruit quality. In terms of harvest time,the fruit yield in the early stage of close planting(from June 9th to June 20th)was increased by 37% compared with that of sparse planting,and the contribution rate of yield increase in the early stage reached 73%,which significantly improved the economic benefit of tomato production. In summary,under the condition of greenhouse tomato cultivation in the east-west direction,the adoption of close planting is conducive to the rational use of environmental conditions,improve the early yield and realize the increase in yield and income.

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  • Resistance Identification and Evaluation of Pepper Germplasm to Colletotrichum acutatum
  • ZHANG Shicai, LI Yifei, WANG Chunping, YANG Xiaomiao, HUANG Qizhong, HUANG Renzhong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 885-892. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0222
  • Abstract ( 51 ) HTML ( 45 ) PDF (2678KB) ( 45 )    
  • Due to the extreme lack of breeding materials resistant to Colletotrichum acutatum in pepper,it is urgent to import and explore the excellent germplasm resources resistant to anthracnose. In this study,the resistance of 74 imported pepper germplasms from the United States and Spain to anthracnose were identified by in vitro inoculation and field trials. The results showed that 40008 and 30163 had better resistance to anthracnose with the incidence of 4.37% and 1.08% by in vitro inoculation method,and the disease indexes of field trails were 5.49 and 9.07,respectively. 11242 and PI201234 had anthracnose resistance with the incidence of 8.63% and 9.86%,and the disease indexes of field trails was 18.93 and 22.34,respectively. Seventeen germplasms such as 10022 and 10062 showed moderate resistance. The remaining 50 materials were susceptible to anthracnose. Both 40008 and 30163 are late-ripening with small fruit and less fruit set percentage,so it needs to be utilized through the improvement of backcross,anther culture and the molecular biology technology. The results will lay a foundation for the breeding of new anthracnose resistant varieties,QTL mapping and molecular marker development.

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  • Identification of the Pathogens Causing Root Rot on Allium tuberosum and Study on Their Biological Characteristics
  • GAO Xiaomei, LÜ Guozhong, LI Yang, AO Jing, LIU Xiaohui, SUN Yulu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 893-906. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0051
  • Abstract ( 40 ) HTML ( 66 ) PDF (4276KB) ( 66 )    
  • Chinese chive(Allium tuberosum)root rot is one of the main diseases of continuous cropping chive in greenhouse. In order to explore the main pathogens of chive root rot disease in Liaoning Province,45 isolates of the genus Fusarium were generated from diseased chive roots and finally identified as F. oxysporum,F. proliferatum and F. solani based on their morphological characteristics and EF-1a,Histone3,rDNA-IGS sequences analysis. These three Fusarium species were confirmed to be the pathogenic agents of the disease according to Koch’s rule. Studies on the biological characteristics of the three pathogens showed that the most suitable growth temperature is about 30 ℃;the optimal growth pH value are at pH 7-8;full dark is conducive to the mycelial growth of the three species;their mycelia can be killed at 75 ℃ for 10 min;their conidia can not germinate at 56 ℃ for 10 min. These pathogens have the highest utilization rate of rhamnose as carbon source and sodium nitrate and glycine as nitrogen source. In summary,F. oxysporum,F. proliferatum and F. solani are the principal pathogenic fungi causing root rot of A. tuberosum,of which F. oxysporum is the most dominant pathogenic species because of its wide distribution and stronger pathogenicity.

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  • Research Progress of The Regulation of Light on Lycopene Biosynthesis in Tomato Fruit
  • CHEN Tongqiang, ZHANG Tianzhu, WANG Xiaozhuo
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 907-923. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0063
  • Abstract ( 116 ) HTML ( 97 ) PDF (1691KB) ( 97 )    
  • This paper reviewed researches associated with light regulation of lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruit,and discussed the related regulation mechanism in terms of gene transcription,post-transcription,light stress and photosynthetic products. The results showed that regulation of red/far-red light on PSY gene is the main way for light to regulate lycopene biosynthesis. There is a cross connection in the signal transduction between red/far-red,blue and ultraviolet light responses. HY5,PIF and COP1 simultaneously participate in the signal transduction process of different light quality. The post-transcriptional regulation of PSY enzymatic activity and the regulation of glucose of lycopene biosynthetic substrate by red/far-red,as well as the stress resistance of lycopene to light stress,are the secondary regulation modes of lycopene biosynthesis.

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New Cultivars

  • A New Ziziphus jujuba Cultivar‘Zhexian 1’
  • REN Haiying, QI Xingjiang, ZHENG Xiliang, KONG Haimin, TAO Jianming, HE Zhen
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 935-936. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0165
  • Abstract ( 50 ) HTML ( 37 ) PDF (1323KB) ( 37 )    
  • ‘Zhexianzao 1’is a new fresh edible jujube cultivar bred from the excellent strain found in ‘Yiwu Dazao’jujube orchard. In Yiwu,Zhejiang Province,the fruit crisp ripening period is around September 5th. The fruit has an average weight of 13.3 g,edible rate of 96.99%,total sugar content of 10.93%,titratable acid content of 4.4 g · kg-1,and vitamin C content of 2.69 mg · g-1. The fruit has high quality,and the flesh is white,crisp,fine,juicy,with sweet and honey flavor. The cultivar‘Zhexian 1’can be cultivated in Zhejiang Province and similar climate areas.

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  • A New Pearl Bitter Gourd Cultivar‘Meiyu 2’
  • LIU Xiaoxi, ZHENG Xiaoming, WU Haibin, LI Junxing, LUO Shaobo, LUO Jianning, GONG Hao
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 937-938. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0320
  • Abstract ( 54 ) HTML ( 24 ) PDF (1300KB) ( 24 )    
  • ‘Meiyu 2’is a new pearl bitter gourd hybrid derived from the cross of mid-early maturing subgynoecious inbred line CP92-7 with the mid-late maturing superior inbred line M1107-B. The node of the first female flower is 18.6-18.9,and the first gourd is located at 20.2-20.8 node. The fruit shape is long conical,with light green,bright and shiny skin. There are many round tubercules with strip. It’s about 26.7-28.5 cm in length,6.38-6.53 cm in diameter,and 1.13-1.16 cm in flesh thickness. The average weight of bitter gourd is 397.7-427.5 g,and the yield per plant is around 1.66-1.89 kg. The general cultivation yield is about 52 500 kg · hm-2.

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  • A New Okra Cultivar‘Wan Qiukui 3’
  • YE Sihong, LIU Fei, TIAN Changjiu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 939-940. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0239
  • Abstract ( 31 ) HTML ( 16 ) PDF (1275KB) ( 16 )    
  • ‘Wan Qiukui 3’is a new cultivar selected by pedigree method from the variation single plant of‘Yan Qiukui-1’introduced from Yancheng City,Jiangsu Province. The plant blooms with 5-6 leaves. It take 50 days from sowing in spring to harvest. The skin of the fruit is light green. The shape of the fruit is straight,the length of the fresh fruit is 12-15 cm,the thickness of the fruit is 18-22 mm,the edges number of fruit is five. The average fruit weight is 14.4 g. The number of capsules per plant is 39.9. The fresh fruit yield is 30 000-35 000 kg · hm-2. The cultivar has good precocity,thick flesh,delicious taste,good quality and good commodity properties,which is suitable for deep processing. Because of the wide adaptability,it is suitable for promotion and planting in Anhui and surrounding provinces.

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  • A New Anoectochilus roburghii Cultivar‘Jianjun 1’
  • ZHU Jianjun, SHAO Qingsong, WU Mei, CHEN Gongkai, CHEN Jialong, ZHANG Ruihua, MA Qiaoqun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(4): 941-942. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0393
  • Abstract ( 54 ) HTML ( 26 ) PDF (1501KB) ( 26 )    
  • ‘Jianjun 1’is a new cultivar selected from wild Anoectochilus roburghii in Wuping Town,Longyan City,Fujian Province. The plant height is 8.1-8.5 cm,the stem is erect,the rhizome is prostrate,and rooting at the node. The leaves are ovoid,purple red,with golden-red silky lustre reticulate veins,the base of the petiole expands into a sheath. 2-6 white flowers form a raceme,the seed setting rate of the new cultivar is very low. Tissue culture seedlings in Zhejiang will not flower in the year of planting,the fresh weight per plant is 2.38 g after planting for six months,the fresh yield is 847.80 g · m-2,and the polysaccharide content is 138.0 mg · g-1. The cultivar grows vigorously,and it has strong disease resistance. It has medicinal,dietary and ornamental values at the same time.

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Horticultural Plant Journal

• Launched in 2015

• Covered by SCIE

• Open Access in ScienceDirect

CN 10-1305/S

ISSN 2095-9885 ONLINE ISSN 2468-0141