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    Bioinformation Analysis and Stress Response of a Histone Deacetylases Gene MdHDA19 in Apple
    ZHANG Rui-fen,LIU Hui,ZHOU Li-jie,GUO Ying,HAO Yu-jin*,and YOU Chun-xiang*
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2016, 43 (4): 613-622.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2015-0857
    Abstract737)      PDF (3050KB)(64234)      

    Histone Deacetylases gene MdHDA19(MDP0000132078)was cloned from‘Gala’apple. Its ORF was 1 494 bp,which encoded 497 amino acids. The molecular mass of this protein was 55.73 kD,and pI was 4.98. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the HDA19 had sequence conservation among different species. MdHDA19 exhibited the highest sequence similarity with Theobroma cacao TcHDA19 (87.05%). The MdHDA19 gene was expressed in all the tissues of apple,especially in root and flower. The MdHDA19 interacted with MdSAT18. The NaCl stress induces the expression level of MdHDA19. MdHDA19 might involve NaCl stress response. The resulted showed that MdHDA19 gene was induced in low temperature(4 ℃)and high temperature(40 ℃). In addition,the MdHDA19 recombinant protein was obtained. The results established the foundation for the further functions research of MdHDA19 protein.

    Characteristics of Different Scion-rootstock Combinations on Root Development and Distribution of Apple Sapling in the Weibei Loess Highlands
    ZHANG Dong1,ZHANG Bao-juan1,LI Wen-qiang2,MA Juan-juan1,TAN Ming1,DU Jun-lan1,and HAN Ming-yu1,*
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2016, 43 (4): 623-632.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2015-0381
    Abstract475)      PDF (2027KB)(61131)      
    It is one of the key practices for the high efficiency mode of apple production to properly select and combine scion and rootstocks. Flower formation and plant shaping of apple sapling are the important indexes to evaluate their performances,which was closely related to the root distributions with these combinations. With three year young trees from 8 kinds of typical scion-rootstock combinations as its subjects,this study investigated root distributions with the different scion-rootstock combinations by sectoral digging and trenching. The results showed that:the root architecture of young trees from 8 kinds of typical scion-rootstock combinations were classified into five types,M dwarfing rootstock combinations,SH dwarfing rootstock combinations,vigorous rootstock combinations,M dwarfing interstock combina- tions and SH dwarfing interstock combinations. It showed that the roots of the apple saplings with three years distributed horizontally and vertically within the limits of 0–60 cm,and the further away from their trunks and the deeper into soil,the less dense they distributed. With the different scion-rootstock combinations,the longest roots were roots with diameters of < 2 mm,followed by roots with diameters of 2–5 mm,and the shortest roots were those with diameters of more than 10 mm. There were more thick roots and less fibrous roots with the arborescent seedling root stocks than with the dwarfing clone rootstocks. Among the dwarfing rootstocks,fibrous roots dominated with the M rootstocks and less with the SH and Qingzhen rootstocks. Of the trees,stem diameters and crown diameters,but significantly positively correlated with the branch number,short-shoot proportion and flower bud number. Evaluations of the scion-rootstock combinations in terms of flower formation and plant shaping indicated that in irrigation-available regions of the Weibei Highlands,the trees from the M rootstock and interstock were able to set fruits early and easy to shape;the trees from the SH rootstock were easy to shape and poorly performed in early fruit set;and the trees from the arborescent combinations performed most poorly in early fruit set,which was closely related to the root distributions with these scion-rootstock combinations.
    Direct Tissue Blot Immunoassay for Detection of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus
    BIN Yu,SONG Zhen*,LI Zhong-an,and ZHOU Chang-yong
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2015, 42 (9): 1843-1850.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2015-0263
    Abstract752)      PDF (940KB)(19260)      
    Direct tissue blot immunoassay(DTBIA)was developed to detect Citrus yellow vein clearing virus(CYVCV)by exploring the optimal dilution of rabbit-anti-CYVCV polyclonal antibody (first antibody)and Alkaline phosphatase(Ap)conjugated goat-anti-rabbit IgG(secondary antibody). The DTBIA was the most effective when the first antibody and secondary antibody diluted in 8 000 and 2 000 separately. Using the method,only CYVCV infected samples showed positive among detected samples associated with different citrus diseases;CYVCV could be effectively detected in 90 days after the tissue blotting membranes kept at 4 ℃. The consistency between DTBIA and one-step RT-PCR was 97.92% in CYVCV detection of citrus varieties. The results showed that the DTBIA method is rapid,simple,stable,specific and reliable,and can be applied for rapid detection of CYVCV in the field,which providing the important practical significance for control of the transmission of citrus yellow vein clearing virus and spreading of the disease widely.
    Establishment of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation in Phalaenopsis
    Chai Mingliang and Kim Doohwan
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2004, 31 (4): 537-539.  
    Abstract1521)      PDF (262KB)(14917)      
    Transgenic orchid(Phalaenopsis CV.White Hikaru)plants were regenerated by inoculating a
    needle wounded protocorm.1ike body (PLB)with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring
    pCAMBIA 1300-SmGFP that carries green fluorescent protein gene( )and hygromycin phosphotransferase
    gene( f).The expression and presence of the transgenes, and f were assessed by detection of green
    fluorescent protein under microscope and Southern analysis,respectively.
    The Effect of 5-azacytidine to the DNA Methylation and MorphogenesisCharacter of Chrysanthemum During in Vitro Growth3,
    WANG Zi-cheng;NIE Li-juan;HE Yan-xia
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2009, 36 (12): 1783-1790.  
    Abstract1860)      PDF (367KB)(14684)      
    The effect of DNA methylation inhibitor ( 5-azacytidine, 5-azaC) to chrysanthemum (Dendranthem a ×grandiflorum ) has been studied by the method of in vitro treatment. The results indicated that 500μmol·L - 1 of 5-azaC caused death, above 100μmol·L - 1 of 5-azaC inhibited the materials’development. The multiple buds differentiation of chrysanthemum was inhibited by every concentration of 5-azaC and the inhibiting effect of 5-azaC has time and dose additive effect. 5-azaC treatment at low concentration induced
    the flowering early, this effect were stability and could be inherited through asexual multiplication. The results of MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism technique) indicated that, the genomic of treated materials DNA methylation decreased distinctly. Part of the sites kept demethylation status in the successive transfer culture when 5-azaC removed.
    Advances in Long Distance Transport of RNA Molecules in Plant Phloem
    LI Ping-fang,YANG Xing-ping*,XU Jin-hua, LIU Guang, YAO Xie-feng, GAO Chang-zhou,and ZHU Ling-li
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2013, 40 (10): 2058-2066.  
    Abstract853)      PDF (238KB)(10135)      
    The presence ofRNA molecules in plant phloem sieve elements which can do long-distance transport is an important discovery in plant kingdom. And it has been discovered that there are three kinds of RNA molecules in phloem sap including exogenous viroids or virus RNA,plant endogenous mRNA and small non-protein-coding RNA(snRNA). Long-distance transport of RNAs in phloem sap can function as signal molecules in mediating plant growth and development. In this paper,the methods of how to collect phloem sap,the RNA molecules in plant phloem sap and the signaling pathways as well as the mechanisms by which how they are transported are discussed and summarized.
    Comparisons of Extraction Solvents and Determining-Methods for Anthocyanins in Strawberry and Blueberry Fruits
    LIU Ren-dao;ZHANG Meng;and LI Xin-xian
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2008, 35 (5): 655-660.  
    Abstract4851)      PDF (252KB)(6428)      
    In this study, the extraction efficacity of solvent type and precision of determining-methods for anthocyanins in fruits were compared. Five solvents, acetone:water:formic acid (A), acetonitrile:acetic acid (B), ethanol:water:acetic acid (C), methanol:water:acetic acid (D), and methanol:HCl (E) were used to extract anthocyanins in strawberry and blueberry fruits and the anthocyanin content in the extracts was determined with colorimetry and HPLC. The results showed that extraction efficiency varied among the solvents with different organic-solvent and acid-type. In strawberries, the extraction efficiency of anthocyanin with D was best, followed by E, C, and A. However, B was the worst to extract the anthocyanin, with its value being less than 1/3 that obtained using the extract containing D. A similar tendency was found in blueberries. The anthocyanin contents determined by colorimetry with extracts containing D, E, and C in both fruits were respectively lower than that shown by HPLC. But, the value was obtained by colorimetry with extracts containing B was 2-fold to that by HPLC. In blueberries, obvious differences were not found in the results obtained using the extract containing A employing both methods, although in strawberries the anthocyanin content determined using the spectrophotometric method was higher by about 50% than with those obtained using HPLC. These results suggest that the HPLC method should be utilized to determine the anthocyanin content and that the colorimetry could be used to compare samples from the same kind of fruit, especially, using a low boiling-point alcohol as a solvent.
    Effects of Cadmium and its Subcellular Distribution on the Photosynthesis of Cauliflower
    TANG Hui-hua;YANG Tao;HU Hong-you;TANG Chao-feng;and LU Chang-yi
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2008, 35 (9): 1291-1296.  
    Abstract2706)      PDF (374KB)(6386)      

    The effects of cadmium (Cd)(5、15、30 mg·L-1)on chlorophyll levels and photosynthesis of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) were studied under different concentrations of Cd using hydroponics system. Meanwhile, the differential centrifugation techniques and sequential extraction methods were used to determine the subcellular distribution and chemical form of Cd in leaves. Cd contents in different parts of plant were also measured after harvest. The results showed that, after different contents of Cd were supplied for two weeks, except intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci), the levels of chlorophyll a and b, net photosynthesis rate(Pn), stomatal conductance(Gs) and transpiration rate(Tr) all decreased significantly compared with the control. For the leaves, Cd was mainly distributed in the fractions of cytoplasm(70.19%-74.40%) and cell wall (22.56%-27.12%), and less distributed in the fractions of mitochondrion and chloroplast(0.90%-2.49%). The sequential extraction results of Cd in leaves indicated that NaCl extractable Cd was predominated (33%—39%), and the distribution of six Cd forms in leaves was as following: F NaCl > FH2O> FHAC> FAlcohol> FHCL> FResidue. Most of Cd absorbed by plant was accumulated in roots, little of them was transported to the aboveground portions. The order of Cd accumulation in different plant parts was: roots>stems, leaves>flowers.

    Research Progress of Rhododendron Breeding
    LAN Xi, ZHANG Le-Hua, ZHANG Jin-Zheng, CUI Hong-Xia, JIANG Chuang-Dao, SHI Lei
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2012, 39 (9): 1829-1838.  
    Abstract1377)      PDF (316KB)(6341)      
    This article has summarized Rhododendron germplasm resourses and research progress on breeding objectives of Rhododendron around the world,involved in colour,florescence,fragrance,resistance. In the end,the development of breeding techniques,especially cross and genetic engineering,is reviewed. Crossbreeding is still the key method for Rhododendron breeding and molecular biology will be highlighted in the future.
    Progress on Molecular Breeding for Grape Disease Resistance
    LI Hui-e and GUO Qi-qiang(Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry College;Nyingchi;Tibet 0000;China)
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2012, 39 (1): 182-190.  
    Abstract2027)      PDF (670KB)(5930)      
    Marker-assisted selection significantly facilitates breeding of new resistant grape varieties,which is widely used in recent years. In addition,with identification and isolation of more and more resistant genes from grape,genetic modification for disease resistance has obtained some preliminary achievements. Progress and achievements of molecular breeding for grape disease resistance have been reviewed. Meanwhile,the problems present was also analyzed and discussed.
    Comparison of Allele-specific PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis in SNP Genotyping and Their Application in Pummelo Cultivar Identification
    YANG Run-ting1,2,WU Bo1,2,LI Chong1,ZENG Pei1,ZENG Ji-wu2,ZHONG Yun2,JIANG Bo2,ZHOU Bi-rong2,and ZHONG Guang-yan2,*
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2013, 40 (6): 1061-.  
    Abstract1151)      PDF (427KB)(5793)      
    Allele-specific PCR(AS-PCR)and high resolution melting analysis(HRMA)are two widely used SNP genotyping methods but no research has been done to compare them in terms of genotyping efficiency. In this study,16 pummelo cultivars and 8 pummelo hybrids were genotyped using AS-PCR and HRMA respectively on two different sets of 7 SNP loci. It was shown that both methods generated the same genotyping results in which 24 accessions were assigned into 22 genotypes. It was noteworthy that Hassaku and Red Hassaku were identical at all SNP loci,indicating both accessions should  have originated asexually from the same mother cultivar,as was the same case for the two Japanese summer orange cultivars,Beni Amanatsu and Kawano Natsudaidai. Interestingly,the early- and middle-season‘Zhenlong’pummelo cultivars possessed different genotypes,indicating clearly that they unlikely had the same origin as bud mutations as was thought before,and further analysis of HRMA results showed there is no direct hereditary relationship between them. Our results showed that both AS-PCR and HRMA were suitable methods for the identification of pummelo-related accessions. AS-PCR is a reliable and low-cost SNP genotyping method and easily accessible to ordinary laboratories though the method was found to be sensitive to changes in PCR conditions. HRMA is proven to be a reliable,quick,simple and high throughput SNP genotyping method;However,it uses special equipment and expensive reagents.
    Research on Anthocyanins Biosynthesis in Fruit
    GE Cui-Lian, HUANG Chun-Hui, XU Xiao-Biao
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2012, 39 (9): 1655-1664.  
    Abstract1423)      PDF (288KB)(5633)      
    The anthocyanins biosynthetic pathway and its influence factors,related regulation genes were summarized in this paper.
    Advances on Whole Genome Sequencing in Fruit Trees
    QIAO Xin, LI Meng, YIN Hao, LI Lei-Ting, WU Jun, ZHANG Shao-Ling
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2014, 41 (1): 165-177.  
    Abstract928)      PDF (736KB)(5428)      
    At present,10 complete genome sequences are available for fruit trees such as grape,
    papaya,apple,banana,pear and sweet orange. In this review,we first surveyed the historical development
    of genomic sequence of fruit trees. Then we investigated the evolution history of fruit trees,and
    summarized the progress of fruit trees post-genomic research. Challenges in genomics for fruit trees are
    raised and the future of post-genomics research interests in fruit trees was discussed in the end.
    Progress on Color Emerging Mechanism and Photosynthetic Characteristicsof Colored-leaf Plants
    Jiang Weibing;Zhuang Meng;Han Haozhang;Dai Meisong;Hua Guoping
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2005, 32 (02): 352-358.  
    Abstract1906)      PDF (373KB)(4918)      
    The concept and classification of the colored-leaf plants and the research progress on the leaf color emergingmechanisms were presented in the paper. We also summarized the environmental effects on leaf color and the progress of the photosynthetic characteristics in colored2leaf p lants. At last, some constructive suggestions about further research emphasis of the colored-leaf plants were discussed.
    Research Progress on Citrus Huanglongbing Disease
    CHENG Chun-zhen1,2,ZENG Ji-wu1,ZHONG Yun1,YAN Hua-xue1,JIANG Bo1,and ZHONG
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2013, 40 (9): 1656-1668.  
    Abstract1301)      PDF (346KB)(4808)      
    Citrus Huanglongbing(HLB),caused by Candidatus liberibacter,is the most devastating disease of citrus for which no cure has been found. Almost all known citrus varieties including those from their closely related genera can be infected by the bacteria. HLB has been a hot topic of citrus researches
    since the disease was discovered in America. In this paper,we are trying to summarize generally the recent advances in the researches of HLB pathogen and pathogen-host interactions. Topics on HLB control and breeding for HLB-resistant/tolerant citrus materials were also touched.
    The Terpene Synthases and Regulation of Terpene Metabolism in Plants
    YUE Yue-chong and FAN Yan-ping
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2011, 38 (2): 379-379–388.  
    Abstract2202)      PDF (275KB)(4726)      
    Terpenoids are important secondary metabolites in plants,which have important physiological and ecological functions as well as economic values. The terpene synthases including monoterpene synthases,sesquiterpene synthases and diterpene synthases,are critical enzymes for the formation of terpenoids. The metabolism of terpenes is characterized with tissure-specificity,which is regulated by developments and by biotic and abiotic factors as well. In addition,the components and contents of terpenoids in transgenic plants can be altered,to some extent,by using genetic engineering. This review mainly summarizes the recent research progress in structure,classification and metabolism of terpene synthases. The regulation of terpene metabolism is also discussed.
    Molecular Mechanism of Controlling Flower Formation by PhotoperiodInducement in Plants
    TIAN Su-bo;GUO Chun-xiao;ZHENG Cheng-shu
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2010, 37 (2): 325-330.  
    Abstract2097)      PDF (630KB)(4700)      
    Flowering is the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in plants. Flowering-related gene expression is the basis for achieving this transition. Environment factors and the growth conditions of plant cells on the expression of these genes play regulatory roles. Now, it has been
    known that photoperiod stimulation signal was received and apperceived by mature leaves of plants and there are produced flowering signal substances in the mature leaves of plants, and that this kinds of flowering signal
    substances transports from leaves to the top of stems, and ultimately causes flowering using model plants Arabidopsis, rice and ornamental plants petunia and Antirrhinum. This article reviewed the study progress in the molecular mechanisms of controlling flowering of plants, in order to provide references for further in-depth studies of photoperiodic flowering molecular mechanism of ornamental plants.
    Bioinformatics Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factor Genes Family in Apple
    XU Rui-Rui, ZHANG Shi-Zhong, CAO Hui, SHU Huai-Rui
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2012, 39 (10): 2049-2060.  
    Abstract1706)      PDF (1564KB)(4517)      
    MdWRKY gene family,gene classification,chromosome location,sequence alignment and conserved structure domains of MdWRKY proteins were predicted and analyzed with bioinformatics methods,alignment of amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis. The amino acid sequences of the WRKY domain of all MdWRKY and possible orthlogs in Arabidopsis were aligned with Clustal W and the phylogenetic analysis tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method in MEGA 5.0. The results showed that MdWRKY family contained 116 genes,which was further divided into three groups(GroupⅠ,GroupⅡ and Group Ⅲ). In addition,members in GroupⅡ can be further divided into five sub-groups(from Ⅱa to Ⅱe). A total of 112 MdWRKY genes were mapped to 17 chromosomes,whereas only 4 MdWRKY genes were not mapped to any particular chromosome. For example,Chr 1 encompasses the largest number of 12 MdWRKY genes,while the lowest number(Chr 14)contained 2 MdWRKY genes. MdWRKY proteins contained from 118 to 965 amino acids and the isoelectric point is from 4.81 to 10.16. Expression analysis showed that the expression levels of most MdWRKY genes were altered during the ripening process and rootstock-scion interactions process.
    Research Advances of Virus-induced Gene Silencing(VIGS)
    SONG Zhen, LI Zhong-An, ZHOU Chang-Yong
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2014, 41 (9): 1885-1894.  
    Abstract882)      PDF (291KB)(4369)      
    Virus-induced gene silencing(VIGS)is an RNA-mediated antiviral defense mechanism of
    plant,and has been developed as a reverse genetics tool for gene function analysis recently. VIGS has
    many advantages compared to commonly used biotechnological tools such as gene transformation,gene
    knockout and antisense inhibition. It is rapid with low cost,no need for stable plant transformation,and
    allows a large-scale screening of genes. Consequently,the approach has been widely used in many plant
    species to characterize genes involved in various plant development processes,disease resistance,stress
    resistance,and metabolic regulation. This paper reviewed the mechanism and current improvements of
    VIGS,factors affecting VIGS response,and VIGS applications on plant functional genomics. Meanwhile,
    the promising application prospect on crop improvement and plant protection were also discussed.
    Research Advance of Glucosinolates from Crucifer
    Li Xian;Chen Kunsong;Zhang Mingfang;Kushad M. Mosbah
    ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA    2006, 33 (3): 675-679.  
    Abstract1600)      PDF (254KB)(4332)      
    Glucosinolate is a group of important bioactive compounds found mainly in the cruciferous family. About 120 natural glucosinolates have been isolated, and they are known to have various functions and bioactivities such as anticarcignogen, plant defense, and flavour2forming. The distribution and biochemical property, glucosinolate breakdown products, and their biological effects are reviewed in this paper.