This paper introduces the important achievements of pepper breeding over the past 60 years in China. It includes the collection,identification,evaluation,utilization and exploration of germplasm resources. The paper also discusses the important advancement in breeding technologies which includes heterosis utilization,anther culture,marker-assisted selection（MAS）,multiple resistance breeding and shuttle breeding. In addition,the history of pepper breeding is reviewed,including the traditional breeding before 1980s and the modern breeding guided with National scientific and technological research after 1980s. Then,driven by the industrial demands,China's pepper breeding has been undergoing several major optimizations：increasing yield,adjusting growth period,enhancing disease resistance,breeding for easy storage and transportation,breeding processed-food-specific varieties,improving product quality,and breeding for mechanized harvesting. After more than four decades of development,a modern and world-leading commercial pepper breeding system has been completely established. Domestic varieties with independent intellectual property rights are taking over 95% of market share across the country. Meanwhile,there are several unique advantages of in China's pepper breeding industry,such as low barrier to entry,low risk,high efficiency,large team,rich varieties,and high effectiveness. However,there are also several problems that strongly restrict the development of the pepper seed industry in China,including homogenization of pepper varieties,difficulty in expanding pepper seed business enterprises and slow research progress of pepper molecular breeding technology. Long-season varieties cultivated in green house and ornamental pepper varieties are mainly imported because the pepper breeding in China is still lagging behind developed countries. Therefore,the future directions for pepper breeding in China will be improving product quality,producing varieties suitable for mechanized production,breeding varieties with medicinal or other functional ingredients,exploring and advertising local varieties with excellent properties,and innovating novel breeding technologies.