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    A Late-ripening Yellow Peach Cultivar‘Zhongtaohuangjinmi No. 5’
    DUAN Wenyi, NIU Liang, CUI Guochao, ZENG Wenfang, PAN Lei, SUN Shihang, and WANG Zhiqiang
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (S1): 23-24.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2023-0210
    Abstract685)      PDF (815KB)(82)      
    ‘Zhongtaohuangjinmi No. 5’is a new cultivar of late-ripening yellow flesh peach bred by artificial pollination. The flower is bell-shaped,pollen-rich,with high natural fruit set rate. The fruit is round. The weight of single fruit is 281–392 g. More than 80% of the fruit surface is yellow at maturity. The flesh is yellow,melting,sweet,with soluble solids content of 14.5%–15.5% and clingstone. Fruit development period is about 142 d. It is very productive,yielding about 37 500 kg · hm-2 at full fruit stage.
    A New Early-ripening Nectarine Cultivar‘Chutian 1’with Freestone and High Sweetness
    WANG Furong, AI Xiaoyan, WANG Huiliang, LIU Yong, ZHU Wei, ZHANG Yang, GU Xia, LIU Mofa, ZHU Xiaomin, GAN Zhimeng, HE Huaping , and GONG Linzhong
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (S1): 21-22.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2023-0121
    Abstract653)      PDF (1578KB)(35)      
    ‘Chutian 1’is a new early-ripenging nectarine cultivar with small fruit and high sweetness,which is derived the cross of‘Fengguang’and‘070507’(Tianxianhong × Zhongyou 5). The fruit shape is round,and the average fruit weight is 82 g,the maximum single fruit weight is 130 g. The flesh is white,crisp and very sweet,with 12%–14% soluble solids content and 0.22%–0.29% titratable acid content. The stone is freestone and has nonshowy flowers,with high and steady yield. The maturity date is early-June in Wuhan area,the average yield is 30 000 kg · hm-2. 
    Function Study of Peptide Coding Gene MhCLE8 in Regulating Anthocyanin Accumulation in Apple(Malus × domestica
    SHI Yan, ZHANG Tian'en, ZHU Baihui, LI Tong, LI Xiuming, YOU Chunxiang
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (12): 2541-2550.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0717
    Abstract614)   HTML70)    PDF (2746KB)(277)      

    In this study,the role of MhCLE8(CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURRSURROUNDING REGION 8)peptide hormone gene in regulating anthocyanin accumulation was investigated using the meterials Arabidopsis and apple calli. The results showed that the accumulation of anthocyanin in Arabidopsis seedlings and apple calli was significantly inhibited when treated with MhCLE8 peptide (referred to as MhCLE8p)which was synthesised in vitro. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple protein sequences alignment showed that MhCLE8 and its homologues in other plant species contain a highly conserved CLE-motif,and MhCLE8 showed high homology with Prunus armeniaca(CAB4276204.1)and Malus baccata(TQE01035.1). The MhCLE8 gene was cloned to binary vector pRI,and transferred to Arabidopsis and apple calli to obtain the stable overexpression materials by Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic technology. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and apple calli showed decresed accumulation of anthocyanin. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis structural genes in MhCLE8 overexpressed plant materials was inhibited to varying degrees. In summary,all the results suggested that the peptide encoding gene MhCLE8 was a negative regulator of anthocyanin accumulation.

    Analysis of Freezing Tolerances and Physiological Differences of Three Pomegranate Cultivars During the Overwintering
    TANG Haixia, YANG Xuemei, FENG Lijuan, ZHU Feng, ZHOU Jilei, YIN Yanlei
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (7): 1563-1573.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0551
    Abstract600)   HTML9)    PDF (1394KB)(144)      

    To study the change of freezing tolerance and its physiological basis of annual shoots of ‘Taishanhong’‘Luqing 1’and‘Tunisian Soft Seed’pomegranates during overwintering,the cold hardiness was estimated by the semi-lethal temperature(LT50),which was assessed by electrolyte leakage rate with Logistic quation,the content of relative water,soluble protein,soluble sugar,malondialdehyde(MDA),activities of peroxidase(POD)and superoxidase(SOD),field overwintering rate,botanical characteristics of shoots,and the recovery ability of branches after freezing stress were measured. The results showed that the significant differences in cold resistance among three pomegranate cultivars. The overwintering rate of‘Luqing 1’was much higher than those of‘Taishanhong’and‘Tunisian Soft Seed’,and‘Tunisian Soft Seed’was the worst. Compared with‘Tunisia Soft Seed’,the shoots of‘Luqing 1’ were thick,hard,with short internodes,the spiness were also strong and hard. Sealing layers of lenticle were rich and tight. The changes of physiological indexes of‘Luqing 1’were relatively small after low temperature treatment. MDA content was low,soluble proteins content and POD activity were high. The osmotic pressure and redox balance of‘Luqing 1’could be maintained well,so its cold resistance much better than that of‘Tunisan Soft Seed’.

    Cloning,Expression and Promoter Activity Analysis of VlRRA1 Gene in Grape
    LI Songqi, LI Xufei, LI Min, LIU Hainan, PEI Maosong, WEI Tonglu, GUO Dalong, YU Yihe
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (8): 1609-1621.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0516
    Abstract517)   HTML53)    PDF (1805KB)(523)      

    The cytokinin response regulator VlRRA1 and its promoter were cloned from‘Kyoho’grape. The expression characteristics of VlRRA1 and the activity of VlRRA1 promoter were analyzed. The results showed that the full-length cDNA of VlRRA1 was 666 bp and encoded 221 amino acids. Conservative domain analysis showed that the gene contained only one phosphoacceptor receiver domain(REC),which belongs to type-A RR genes and can only accept phosphate groups;phylogenetic relationships showed that VlRRA1 was closely related to type-A RR in other species. The yeast self-activation assay illustrates that VlRRA1 has no transcriptional activation activity in agreement with other A-type RR genes and does not have a function similar to that of the B-type RR transcription factor. The results of qRT-PCR showed that VlRRA1 had tissue-specific expression and was mainly expressed in stems,leaves and young fruit,slightly lower expression in inflorescence and ripe fruit,suggesting that VlRRA1 may play an important role in the process of fruit set;exogenous cytokinin forchlorfenuron(CPPU)can promote VlRRA1 expression,while the cytokinin biosynthesis inhibitor lovastatin(LOV)inhibits VlRRA1 transcription. Many elements related to abiotic stress and hormone response were found in VlRRA1 promoter. The results of GUS tissue staining showed that VlRRA1 promoter had promoter activity and could respond to a variety of hormone signals,including three plant hormones related to fruit setting,cytokinin,auxin and gibberellin. These results suggest that VlRRA1 plays an important role in grape fruit setting and young fruit development mediated by cytokinin.

    Preliminary Study on the Mechanism of Flower Organ Development and Sex Formation in Different Grapes
    HAN Kai, LUO Yaoxing, JIAO Xiaobo, YAN Zhao, NAOMI Abe-Kanoh, MA Xiaohe, JI Wei
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (12): 2551-2567.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2023-0010
    Abstract480)   HTML21)    PDF (5538KB)(148)      

    In the current study,the flowers of three grape varieties‘Beichun'(hermaphrodite),‘1613C'(male) and‘520A'(female)were chosen. Hormone determination and transcriptome sequencing were performed at the early bud stage,large bud stage and blooming stage. The accumulation of various plant hormones in flowers of different genders was different,and so was that in flowers of the same gender at different developmental stages. The contents of IAA,ABA and MeJA were the highest in the large bud stage of female flowers. A total of 31 965 expressed genes were obtained,and 1 535 genes were directly related to flower development and were mainly involved in phenylpropane synthesis and plant hormone signal transduction pathways. Some genes are continuously up-regulated or down-regulated at different developmental stages. The genes that are continuously up-regulated are mainly involved in Phenylpropane synthesis,plant hormone signal transduction and other pathways. The genes that are continuously down-regulated are mainly involved in starch and sugar metabolism,and amino acid synthesis. MADS-box genes,such as AP1SEP1AG2 and SOC1 were significantly differently expressed in different floral organs at developmental stages. During flower sex differentiation,the differential expression of the MADS-box gene,the flower-induced integron gene,and the detoxification and stress-related genes play important roles.

    Construction and Application of a CRISPR/Cas9 System for Multiplex Gene Editing in Tomato
    YANG Mengxia, LIU Xiaolin, CAO Xue, WEI Kai, NING Yu, YANG Pei, LI Shanshan, CHEN Ziyue, WANG Xiaoxuan, GUO Yanmei, DU Yongchen, LI Junming, LIU Lei, LI Xin, HUANG Zejun
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (6): 1215-1229.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0339
    Abstract459)   HTML25)    PDF (5594KB)(197)      

    In order to construct a CRISPR/Cas9 system for multiplex gene editing in tomato,Arabidopsis U6 promoters in pKSE401 and pCBC-DT1T2 vectors were replaced with SlU6-2p,SlU6-3p,SlU6-7p,SlU3-5p,SlU3-9p and SlU6-5p,respectively. Accordingly,a binary vector(pMGET),two intermediate vectors(pKC-S2M and pKC-S3M),and three gRNA module vectors(pCBC-S1,pCBC-S2 and pCBC-S3)were constructed. In order to test the system for multiplex gene editing in tomato,multiplex gene editing vectors pMGET-OYGTULC and pMGET-TULCOYG were constructed by aggregating sgRNA expression cassettes containing the target sequences of six tomato fruit trait-related genes Green fleshGF),OvateO),Locule numberLC),SlMYB12Y),TangerineT)and Uniform ripeningU),through PCR amplification,Golden gate cloning and isocaudamer technique,and the editing efficiency of six genes at the same time of the two vectors was 44.00% and 11.76%,respectively. The tomato material was transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying pMGET-OYGTULC vector to obtain two plants with six genes edited. The sequence variations were in the form of single base insertion,single or multiple base deletion and large fragment deletion. In this study,the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be efficiently used for multiplex gene editing in tomato,and stable genetic mutants can be obtained,which can provide a versatile toolbox for basic research and genetic improvement in tomato.

    Comprehensive Evaluation of Fruit Spots in 296 Pear Germplasm Resources
    DUAN Ruiwei, ZHANG Xiangzhan, LI Bo, WANG Mengru, XIE Yarong, LI Pei, WANG Lei, YANG Jian, XUE Huabai
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (11): 2305-2322.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0492
    Abstract457)   HTML57)    PDF (4571KB)(423)      

    In this study,a total of 296 pear germplasms from National Horticulture Germplasm Resources Center Pear Branch Center(Zhengzhou)were collected for fruit spots observation,data collection and photography. During fruit harvesting period,the indicated pear germplasms were sampled and different fruit spot traits,including fruit spots size,fruit spots density,fruit spots height,and the fruit spots area in unit area were comprehensively analyzed. Additionally,sensory evaluation of fruit appearance quality associated with fruit spots in different pear germplasms was performed,and the apperance quality of different pear germplasms was evaluated by grey relation analysis(GRA)and cluster analysis(CA)to establish a comprehensive evaluation model for pear fruit spot traits. The results showed that the relative correlation degree of fruit spots of 296 pear resources ranged from 0.3158 to 0.6526,and the 296 resources were classified into five grades:excellent,good,medium,poor,and extremely poor. Pear varieties including‘Autumn Red’‘Silk Red’‘Red Sensatian’‘Zhongli Meicui’‘Barlett’and‘Dabali’were screened out with excellent fruit spot traits,which have good appearance quality and were consistent with the actual production fruit exterior. On the contrary,pear varieties including‘Puguali’‘Xihuamake’‘Chili’and‘Enli’were screened out with extremely poor fruit spot traits,which have poor appearance quality. Furthermore,the fruit spot traits of 296 pear germplasm resources were divided into five grades by cluster analysis,including excellent,good,medium,poor and extremely poor,which accounted for 7.8%,8.8%,37.1%,34.1% and 12.1% of the tested materials,respectively. Above all,the germplasm resources with excellent fruit spot traits will lay the foundation for the improvement of pear appearance quality,and the germplasm resources with poor fruit traits will be helpful for the investigation of the formation and regulation mechanism underlying pear fruit spots.

    Transcriptome Analysis of Flower Buds of Sweet Cherry Cultivars with Different Chilling Requirements During Dormancy Stages in Hangzhou
    RUAN Ruoxin, LUO Huifeng, ZHANG Chen, HUANG Kangkang, XI Dujun, PEI Jiabo, XING Mengyun, LIU Hui
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (6): 1187-1202.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0297
    Abstract433)   HTML35)    PDF (3081KB)(182)      

    This study aims to explore the molecular regulation mechanism of flower bud dormancy in sweet cherry cultivars that are suitable for growing in South China. Two sweet cherry cultivars(‘Brooks’and‘Summit’)planted in Hangzhou with different chilling requirements were used as materials. Flower buds were collected at three different dormancy stages,namely pre-dormancy stage(S1),endodormancy stage(S2),and pre-budbreak stage(S3). Transcriptome sequencing was performed to analyze the gene expression differences between these two cultivars. 343,671,and 1 588 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)were obtained in S1,S2,and S3,respectively,and the number of DEGs in S3 was the largest. GO analysis revealed that the DEGs between the two cultivars were mainly enriched in the processes related to cellular component organization,cellular metabolism,response to stimulus,and transporter activity in the dormancy stages. KEGG analysis showed that the DEGs concentrated in S3,which involved sugar metabolism,protein processing,plant-pathogen interaction,and plant hormone signal transduction. The expression trends of some DEGs suggested their roles in regulating the transition of dormancy state of flower buds in sweet cherry. Forty-two differentially expressed transcription factors including nine families were obtained by predictive analysis of transcription factors. The expression levels of 13 transcription factors belonging to AP2/ERF,MYB,WRKY,C2H2,C3H,and MADS-box family in S2 were significantly higher than those in S1 and S3,suggesting that these transcription factors may be involved in the regulation of flower bud dormancy.

    A New Early-ripening Table Grape Cultivar‘Zijin Hongxia’ 
    WU Weimin , WANG Zhuangwei, QIAN Yaming, WANG Xicheng, WANG Bo, and YAN Lichun
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (S1): 25-26.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-1138
    Abstract430)      PDF (985KB)(53)      
    ‘Zijin Hongxia’is a new early-ripening table grape cultivar. The berry ripens in late July in Nanjing,Jiangsu. It was selected from progenies of the cross‘Yatomi Rosa’בXiangfei’. The cluster is cone with an average weight 520 g,and single berry is elliptic with average weight 9.2 g. The color of skin is red-violet and thickness of bloom is thick. The flesh is slight crisp and the must is high with particular weak muscat flavor. The soluble solids content is 18.3% and titrate acid content is 0.30%. ‘Zijin Hongxia’is characterized by good berry quality and showed high and stable yield.‘Zijin Hongxia’ performed well in Jiangsu Province and its surrounding area
    A New Late Ripening Apple Cultivar‘Qinfu 1’
    LI Shaoxuan, WANG Zhiyun , HU Dagang , ZHU Bo , and HAN Mingsan,
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (S1): 1-2.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2023-0378
    Abstract423)      PDF (1390KB)(89)      
    ‘Qinfu 1’is a bud sport strain selected and bred from‘Karakida Fuji’. The skin of the fruit is easy coloring;the yield and quality of this cultivar are excellent,and the resistance to apple ring rot disease is very strong. The fruit is oblong with a fruit shape index of 0.88 and an average fruit weight of 320 g. The flesh is milky yellow,fine and brittle,with rich flavor,18% soluble solids content,0.21% titratable acidity,and 8.6 kg · cm-2 of average peeling hardness. It has good compatibility with dwarf intermediate rootstocks such as CG80 and M26,and can bear fruit on long,medium and short branches. It can be cultivated without bagging. It is a new late ripening apple cultivar,matured in early November in Qingdao. The yield is 60 000 kg · hm-2. It is suitable for cultivation in Jiaodong Peninsula and other regions.
    Mechanism of PpMADS2 and PpMADS3 Synergistically Regulating Carotenoids Accumulation in Peach Fruit
    XIAO Xiang, ZHOU Chujiang, JIN Shuwan, SHI Liyu, YANG Zhenfeng, CAO Shifeng, CHEN Wei
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (6): 1173-1186.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0221
    Abstract420)   HTML73)    PDF (2536KB)(344)      

    To explore the regulation of MADS-box family transcription factors on carotenoid metabolism in yellow fleshed peach, two MADS genes named as PpMADS2(PRUPE_5G208500)and PpMADS3(PRUPE_5G208400)were cloned. The open reading frames of PpMADS2 and PpMADS3 were 768 bp and 756 bp,encoding 255 and 251 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the N-terminus of both proteins contained typical characteristic domains of MADS-box family. Subcellular localization showed that both PpMADS2 and PpMADS3 were located at the nucleus. The results showed the gene expression levels of PpMADS2PpMADS3 as well as carotenoid biosynthetic genes such as PpPSY and PpCHYB increased during fruit ripening,which was consistent with the carotenoid accumulation in yellow fleshed peach. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that PpMADS2 could interact with PpMADS3 then synergistically activate the promoters of PpPSY and PpCHYB genes. Therefore,it is speculated that PpMADS2 and PpMADS3 promoted the accumulation of carotenoids in yellow fleshed peach fruit cooperatively through transcriptional activation of PpPSY and PpCHYB. These research provided a theoretical basis for further exploring the regulatory mechanism of MADS-box transcription factors on carotenoid accumulation in peach fruit.

    Cloning and Functional Analysis of the CDS and Promoter of Synthase Gene STS19 in Chinese Wild Grapevine
    LIU Hui, YIN Xiangjing, FANG Jinghao, GAO Min, LI Zhi, WANG Xiping
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (7): 1389-1401.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0478
    Abstract418)   HTML36)    PDF (3610KB)(380)      

    VaSTS19 and VdSTS19 were cloned from Vitis amurensis Rupr.‘Tonghua 3’and V. davidii Foex.‘Tangwei’. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame of VaSTS19 and VdSTS19 were 1 179 bp,encoding 392 amino acid,and they were located on chromosome 16. The identity between VaSTS19 and VdSTS19 nucleotide and amino acid was 98.81% and 98.21%,respectively. Both VaSTS19 and VdSTS19 are located on the cytomembrane,cytoplasm and nucleus. The expression of STS19 gene and the synthesis and accumulation of resveratrol were significantly promoted when VaSTS19 and VdSTS19 were transferred into tomato by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The promoters of VaSTS19 and VdSTS19 were cloned from‘Tonghua 3’and‘Tangwei’,respectively. cis-Acting elements analysis showed that both promoters contained stress-related elements,hormone-related elements and light-related elements. A sequence alignment showed that the VaSTS19 promoter was demonstrated 60% homology with the VST2 promoter cloned from V. vinifera. The promoters of VaSTS19 and VdSTS19 and their fragments were significantly responsive to SA and MeJA induction in transgenic tobacco leaves. The results indicated that the expression pattern of STS19 and the production of resveratrol may be related to the regulation of the upstream region.

    Identification of the MYB Gene Family and Functional Analysis of Key Genes Related to Blue Flower Coloration in Agapanthus praecox
    HE Weizhi, LEI Weiqi, GUO Xiangxin, LI Ruilian, CHEN Guanqun
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (6): 1255-1268.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0226
    Abstract406)   HTML24)    PDF (3495KB)(172)      

    MYB gene family members of Agapanthus praecox were identified by bioinformatics methods and the function of key genes that regulate blue flower coloration was verified. In total,123 ApMYBs were identified based on full-length transcriptome sequencing data,including 60 R2R3-MYBs,four 3R-MYBs,two 4R-MYBs and 57 1R-MYBs. Then,the R2R3-MYBs that regulate flavonoid biosynthesis were further analyzed. R2R3-MYBs were divided into 22 subgroups(A1-A22),together with A18(S4),A17(S5)and A16(S7)subgroups were all related to flower coloration,except for S6 subgroup. ApMYB4,ApMYB6,ApMYB7,ApMYB12,ApMYB111 and ApMYB123 were all localized in the nuclei. Whereas,ApMYB123 was especially concentrated in the nucleolus. During blue flower coloration,ApMYB12 was significantly up-regulated,while ApMYB111 was opposite. White flowers showed increased expression of ApMYB4ApMYB6 and ApMYB7 compared to blue flowers,indicating them as the negative regulators of coloration. A specific expression peak of ApMYB123 was arisen in bloom stage of white flowers,suggesting biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins. Further ectopic expression of ApMYB12 in tobacco found that the petal color turned lighter than wild type plants. In addition,the anthocyanin content reduced by 54.55%-62.50% while the flavonols content increased by 125%-170%. These results demonstrated that ApMYB12 regulated the biosynthesis of auxiliary pigment flavonols,thereby regulating the coloration of blue flower.

    A New Phalaenopsis Cultivar‘Yufen’
    LÜ Fubing, CHEN Heming, LI Zuo, XIAO Wenfang
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (7): 1605-1606.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0293
    Abstract406)   HTML7)    PDF (1251KB)(72)      

    The Phalaenopsis cultivar‘Yufen’with pink flower is bred by crossing female Phal.‘Wedding Promenade’and male Phal.‘Lucky Angel’. The number of pedicels per plant was 1.4,there are 7.8 flowers in the main inflorescence and 12.6 flowers on the whole,the length of flower branches was 38.2 cm,the diameter of flower was 5.3 cm and the flower color is pink with round and good design.

    A New Early-ripening Apple Cultivar‘Yanqingyu’
    SUN Yanxia , TANG Yan , LIU Daliang , ZHAO Lingling , ZHANG Xueyong , LIU Xueqing , Dorota Ewa Kruczynska , CHENG Zhijuan , Sylwia Keller-Przybylkowicz , and SONG Laiqing,
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (S1): 3-4.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-1020
    Abstract393)      PDF (922KB)(61)      
    ‘Yanqingyu’,a new early-ripening green apple cultivar,is derived from the cross between ‘Jinshuai’and‘Lanpengwang’. The fruit is nearly round with the fruit shape index of 0.85 and an average single fruit weight of 226.5 g;The peel is green and smooth without rust. The flesh is yellow white,crisp, rich in flavor. The hardness is 8.4 kg · cm-2,the soluble solids content is 14.2%,the vitamin C content is 31.9 mg · kg-1,and the titratable acid content is 0.28%. In the Yantai area of Shandong Province,the fruit ripens in late August,with a fruit development period of about 120 days and an average yield of 4 000 kg · hm-2. It has strong disease resistance,high resistance to apple trunk ring and rot disease,and is suitable for baggless cultivation. 
    Identification and Expression Analysis of HMA Gene Family in Brassica juncea Under Cadmium Stress
    HUANG Zhihao, LIU Tingting, DONG Xujie, YAN Mingli, LIUZhixiang , ZENG Chaozhen
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (6): 1230-1242.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0509
    Abstract392)   HTML34)    PDF (3193KB)(166)      

    Brassica juncea can enrich a variety of heavy metals. Heavy metal transporting ATPase(HMA)plays an important role in the process of transporting heavy metals in plants. Based on genomic and transcriptomic data,the HMA gene family members in B. juncea were identified. A total of 27 HMA genes were found in B. juncea genome. Six of these HMA proteins have instability indexes greater than 40. Twenty-two members are hydrophobic proteins. These genes cluster into three subfamilies,P-1B-1,P-1B-2,and P-1B-4. All the HMAs are membrane proteins containing the E1-E2 ATPase and hydrolase domains. Each HMA protein contains 1-8 motifs. Different subfamilies have unique conserved motifs according to the types of heavy metals transported by them. In the promoter regions of the HMA genes,the cis-acting element TGA related to the regulation of growth and development,the cis-acting elements ABRE,MBS,LTR,and TC related to the regulation of stress response are widely distributed. Under cadmium(Cd)stress,BjuA033764,BjuB019118,BjuB035256,and BjuB045293 were up-regulated in leaves,and BjuA003596,BjuB040613,and BjuA025022 were up-regulated in roots,indicating their involvement in the response to Cd stress.

    Cloning and Function Analysis of Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzyme Gene CrUBC2 in Citrus reticulata‘Wuzi Shatangju’
    WU Xiulan, LI Guihua, TANG Wenwu
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (10): 2069-2078.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-1185
    Abstract387)   HTML42)    PDF (2052KB)(241)      

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 is a key enzyme for substrate ubiquitination reaction,which plays an important role in the mechanism of self-incompatible by S-RNase degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome system. An E2 gene was cloned based on EST sequence(EY715921)of Citrus sinensis using the flower buds from‘Wuzi Shatangju’and‘Shatangju’,named as CrUBC2. The full-length cDNA sequence of the CrUBC2 was 965 bp,encoding 152 amino acids. There was one base difference (C/T)in the coding sequence of CrUBC2 between‘Wuzi Shatangju’and‘Shatangju’,which resulted in the conversion of threonine to isoleucine. Multiple sequence alignment showed that only one amino acid difference(Thr/Ile)was found between CrUBC2 and orthologs. Therefore,CrUBC2 protein was highly conservative during the evolution process. qRT-PCR showed that the highest expression level of the CrUBC2 was detected in anthers,and the expression level of the CrUBC2 after cross-pollination was 2.22-5.36 fold higher than that of self-pollination,indicating obvious expression specificity in different pollination. Pollen germination experiment in vitro showed that CrUBC2 protein of‘Wuzi Shatangju’inhibited significantly the growth of pollen tubes of self-pollination,but it had no effect on the growth of cross-pollination pollen tubes,which may be related to its involvement in S-RNase ubiquitination and resulting in cross-compatibility.

    Cell Wall Material Metabolism and the Response to High Temperature and Water Deficiency Stresses in Pericarp are Associated with Fruit Cracking of‘Duwei’Pummelo
    LU Yanqing, LIN Yanjin, LU Xinkun
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (8): 1747-1768.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2022-0653
    Abstract383)   HTML3)    PDF (1405KB)(111)      

    In this study,the pericarp surrounding the blossom end of normal and cracked fruits(three degrees of fruit cracking)from the‘Duwei’pummelo cultivar were used for high throughput RNA sequencing. Some differentially expressed genes are potentially associated with fruit cracking. Galacturonosyltransferase(catalyzing homogalacturonan synthesis)and arabinogalactan protein (maintaining cell wall structure)genes were significantly down-regulated,however,genes (polygalacturonase,pectate lyase)involved in the pectin degradation pathway were significantly up regulated in cracked pericarp compared to the un-cracked pericarp. The changes in the expression of these genes may link to a decrease in mechanical strength of the cell wall,consequently inducing fruit cracking. A gene for 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase(participating long chain lipid acid synthesis)was 5-6 times in un-cracked pericarp compared to cracked pericarp,suggesting that the decrease in transcript level of the gene may lead to a lower capacity of pericarp to suppress transpiration,ultimately,may lead to water deficiency stress,cell death,and microcrack formation in pericarp. Genes related to high temperature or water deficiency(dehydration-responsive element-binding protein,calcineurin B-like-interacting protein kinase,WRKY30,WRKY33,and WRKY40)were significantly down regulated in cracked pericarp,indicating the possible association of high temperature and water deficiency with fruit cracking.

    A New Mid-ripening and Cold Resistant Peach Cultivar‘Zhonghan Hongqiong’
    YANG Xingwang, WANG Yingying, WANG Haibo, WANG Xiaolong, WANG Zhiqiang, SHI Xiangbin, JI Xiaohao, LIU Wanchun, and WANG Xiaodi
    Acta Horticulturae Sinica    2023, 50 (S1): 17-18.   DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2023-0028
    Abstract375)      PDF (1227KB)(65)      
    ‘Zhongnong Hongqiong’,a new mid-ripening and cold resistant peach cultivar,is derived from the cross between‘Tomijima Peach King’and‘Zhongnong Hantao 1’. When the tree has moderate growth,its posture will be half open. Its flowers are rose-shaped,pollen and have a high natural fruiting rate. The fruit is oval and the average single fruit weight is 93.6 g. The pericarp is white;the bright red sunward side;the flesh is white,and it is clingstone. The fruit is small,taste pure sweet,good quality of fresh-eating. The soluble solids content is 11.3%–14.2%,the titratable acid content is 0.12%–0.36%. Under the extreme low temperature from–23 ℃ to–19 ℃ in Huludao City,Liaoning Province,it can survive in open field without any cold-proof protection. The fruit ripening date is in late-July to early mid-August,the fruit development period is about 98–109 days. It is suitable for planting in Huludao of Liaoning Province or similar ecological area.