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2001, Vol.28, No.5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

研究论文

  • A Study of the Sources of Abscisic Acid in Grape Berry during Its LateDevelopmental Phases
  • Huang Conglin;Zhang Dapeng;and Jia Wensuo
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 385-391.
  • Abstract ( 1743 ) HTML ( 1166 ) PDF (285KB) ( 1166 )    
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) has been considered as a trigger in grape fruit ripening.
    Potted‘Cabernet2Franc’grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. ) were used in the experiment to determine the sources of ABA in grape berry. The results showed that ABA synthesized in leaves could be rapidly and efficiently transported into a grape berry , and constituted an important source of ABA in the fruit . Although the ABA synthesized in roots , especially induced by water stress , could be transported into the fruit , it did not contribute much to the ABA content in grape berry. ABA biosynthesized in seeds seemed unlikely to be an important source of ABA in the flesh of grape berry. ABA was efficiently biosynthesized and catabolised independently by a grape berry , which could mediate ABA concentration in the fruit tissues through their ABA metabolic system in favor of the berry development .
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  • Regeneration of Tetraploid Plants with Cecropin MB39 Gene from‘Royal Gala’Apple
  • Liu Qingzhong;Zhao Hongjun;Liu Peng;Mong Rengong;and Freddi A. Hammerschlag
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 392-398.
  • Abstract ( 1541 ) HTML ( 1118 ) PDF (298KB) ( 1118 )    
  • As part of the program to develop transgenic Malus ×Domestic. cv. ‘Royal Gala’tetraploid with improved traits , new germplasmof transgenic diploid and tetraploid plants with cecropin MB39 gene were regenerated. Seven transgenic diploid plants were obtained from etiolated internodal
    explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using the plasmid binary vector pGV containing a chimeric gene cecropin MB39 . The integration of the cecropin gene into apple genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. It was proved that lines , TR-1 and TR-3 , had increased the resistance to fireblight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora. Twenty tetraploid lines were produced by cocultivating leaf explants from wild type and transgenic diploid shoots with colchicine in apple regeneration medium. Flow cytometry was used for ploidy etermination. The tetraploid plants were distinguishable from the diploid on morphological as well as cytogenetic grounds. Both the transgenic diploid and tetraploid plants are now being evaluated for growth development and disease resistance.
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  • Transcription of the Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Tomato Anthers
  • Liu Jian and Mariko Shono
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 403-408.
  • Abstract ( 1176 ) HTML ( 966 ) PDF (249KB) ( 966 )    
  • Eight tomato cultivars with different heat tolerance were planted in the subtropical area. The ratios of pollen sterile were checked in the summer. According to pollen sterility, the tomato plants were classified into two types: heat tolerant type and heat sensitive type. Meanwhile, the transcription of four types of small heat shock protein genes in tomato anthers were analyzed. The constitutive mRNA of cytosolic andmitochondrial2located small heat shock protein genes were detected in the anthers. The significant heat induced transcription of cytosolic and mitochondrial-locted sHSP genes occurred in the summer. The temperature corresponding to the sHSP transcription peak in anthers of heat sensitive cultivars was lower than that of the heat tolerance cultivars.
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  • Microsporogenesis of Several Male2Sterile Lines in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis
  • Guo Jingxin;Sun Rifei;Song Jiaxiang;and Zhang Shujiang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 409-414.
  • Abstract ( 1395 ) HTML ( 1116 ) PDF (320KB) ( 1116 )    
  • Microsporogenesis of two cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines 66A and 61A , one genic male sterile ( GMS) line 76A and their maintainers was investigated cytologically by using plastic semi2thin sections with light microscopy. The complete abortion of 76A occurred at the stage of meiosis , the pollen mother cells could not develop to form tetrads due to the abnormal meiosis meanwhile the tapetum cells degenerated prematurely. CMS 61A line formed abnormal tetrad. The callose wall did not degenerate and no microspores were released from the tetrad. At the same time , an abnormal morphology of the tapetum cells was observed , which showed either hypertrophy or a
    formation of periplasmdium. The inhibition of mosporogenesis of CMS 66A occurred at the uninucleate stage when the microspore failed to continue gametogenesis and abnormal vacuolation and rudimental exine were observed. The tapetum cells were abnormal with hypertrophy or forming periplasmdium.
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  • Characteristics of Sterility in CMS 3411-7 of Chinese Cabbage Sensitive to Low Temperature
  • Zhang Lugang;Hao Dongfang;and Ke Guilan
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 415-420.
  • Abstract ( 1328 ) HTML ( 787 ) PDF (201KB) ( 787 )    
  • The effect of temperature and treating time on the expression of sterility of CMS 3411-7 in Chinese cabbage Petsai with Polima cytoplasm was observed with alternat ing temperature, constant temperature in light growth incubator and alternating temperature in nature condit ion. The results showed that range of temperature affecting the sterility of CMS 3411-7 was wide, it occurred sterility changeover or fluctuation in constant temperature 3- 15, the range of 8/ 4 to 14/ 10 ( day/ night, that is daily mean temperature 6- 12 ) is the effective temperature. At constant temperature
    6 ! , the value of changeover of CMS 3411-7 got grade 2 in 3- 5 days treatment , and the changeover of it was enhanced while the treating time prolonged ( from 3 to 9 days) . At constant temperature 9, there was a largest changeover in 6 days treatment compared with that in 3 or 9 days treatment. At al ternating temperature 14/ 10, the intensity of changeover of sterility is not depended upon the treating time. At 17/ 13 long treating time inhibited the changeover of sterility. In addition, although there was large difference between the begin or the end of changeover of sterility in difference treatment, the time of significant changeover of sterility was still concentrated and stable in 10- 27 days after temperature treatment. Because the changeover of sterility happened in 8/ 4- 17/ 13 in only 3
    days treatment , it seems that 3 days treatment in that condition is enough to induce the gene of changeover of sterility, whether the time shorter than 3 days may induce it still need future study.
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  • Effects of silicon on earliness and photosynthetic characteristics of melon
  • Lu Gang and Cao Jiashu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 421-424.
  • Abstract ( 1618 ) HTML ( 1059 ) PDF (146KB) ( 1059 )    
  • To study the effects of silicon on the growth and photosynthetic haracteristics of melon ( Cucumis melon L. ) , two cultivars were grown in a hydroponics system containing 1. 0 mmol#L- 1Si( as sodium silicate) in early spring under low temperature, 10- 15 % . There were no effects of supplementary silicate on shoot growth; however, the fresh weight of root and the root/ shoot rat io in both varieties were significantly increased. Plants grown in the presence of Si showed a significant increase in early yield, which was resulted from earlier flowering, lower fruiting node and decreasing fruit abortion. Addition of silicon in the solut ion caused a significant increase in chlorophyll contents in both varieties and Si contents in leaves and roots, but an obviously reduction in transpiration.
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  • Effect of Selenium Application on the Yield of Garlic and its SeleniumContent
  • Wang Yongqin;;Cao Jiashu;Li Jianhua;Zhao Meng;and Zhao Guifang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 425-429.
  • Abstract ( 1896 ) HTML ( 1862 ) PDF (199KB) ( 1862 )    
  • In order to understand the effect of selenium on the yield of garlic and its absorption and transformation , the experiment was carried out through three different ways , namely leaf absorption , seed soaking and soil application. It was found that the ability to absorb selenium varied
    among the four garlic varieties , the highest of which was ‘Yingxian’garlic , and followed by ‘Xinzhou’, ‘Yuci’and ‘Taigu’. Under the range of selenium concentration in this experiment , with the rise of selenium concentration , the yield of garlic increased and then dropped , whereas the
    total content of selnium in garlic increased steadily with the decrease of the ratio of inorganic Se to organic Se.
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  • A Study on the Solid Encapsulating System of the Artificial Seed ofDendrobium candidum
  • Zhang Ming;Wei Xiaoyong;and Huang Huarong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 435-439.
  • Abstract ( 1347 ) HTML ( 1696 ) PDF (202KB) ( 1696 )    
  • This paper describes the study on the Dendrobium candidum artificial seed prepared by using the clay and vermiculite powder as the encapsulating media. The results showed that the germination rate reached 56. 8 % , when the proportion of clay∶vermiculite∶water was 2∶1∶2. When this system was added with only 1. 0 % activated charcoal , or 1. 0 % activated charcoal and 0. 5 % starch , the corresponding average germination rates of the artificial seeds increased to 76. 7 % and 80. 3 %. The treatments enhanced the germination rate by 18. 4 % and 24. 2 % respectively , compared to the control . Both the effect of other seed coat materials used , such as chitosan , and the effect of protocorm-like bodies’water-loss rate on the rate of the artificial seed germination and storage were also studied.
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  • The Genetic Property of Hybridization on Begonia rex
  • Li Jingxiu;Guan Kaiyun;Tian Daike;Xiang Jianying;and Kong Fancai
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 440-444.
  • Abstract ( 1275 ) HTML ( 945 ) PDF (381KB) ( 945 )    
  • The reciprocal crosses had been conducted among the adopting Begonia rex and wild Begonia from Yunnan or horticultural breeds of Begonia rex . The characters and properties of the F1 generation on the leaf mottling , cauline type and cold resistant capacity were observed. The segregation of green mottling character was studied by observation and statistic analysis of the F2 populations. The results showed that the silvery green mottling and without mottling were one couple of contrast characters of Begonia rex , the silvery green mottling was dominant , the genetics of this couple of characters
    was correspond to Mendel’s law. In the F1 plants of B . rex ×B . longialata , the continuous expression of the silvery green mottling was influenced by the intensity of illumination. To keep the primary color of silvery green mottling , it was need to add 2000 lx illumination after two years of growth. Rhizome was the most steady genetic character , its genetic retention rate was 90 %. High heterosis was showed in F1 generation on the cold resistance , F1 population possessed a higher cold resistance capacity than their parents. This paper provided a reference for the selection and breeding of green mottling
    character and cold resistance.
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  • Effect of AVG Application on Ovule and Seed Development of‘Kyoho’ Grapevine
  • Hu Jianfang;He Haiyang;Liao Kang;and Zhang Dapeng
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 445-447.
  • Abstract ( 1521 ) HTML ( 961 ) PDF (131KB) ( 961 )    
  • The AVG ( 2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine) 100 mg!L-1 application enhanced the rate of seeded berries percluster and number of seeds per berry. Water soluble growth inhibitors of pollen tube in the pistils decreased significantly
    after AVG treatment, in comparison with the untreated control, which may induce a decrease of the pollen tube growth in pistils of control, and so that no tube reached the micropyles of ovaries of control whthin 24 hour after pollination. AVG treatment also increased the rate of normal embryo sac and numbers of carpel of ovules per ovary.
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  • Effect of Root Restriction on the Growth of Wine Grape‘Carbenet Sauvignon’
  • Zhang Chenglin and Ben Ami Bravdo
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 448-450.
  • Abstract ( 1271 ) HTML ( 818 ) PDF (145KB) ( 818 )    
  • Effect of three pot sizes (i. e. 10 , 20 and 50 L) on the growth of wine grape cv. Carbenet Sauvignon was
    studied with sand culture. Root growth was positively correlated with pot size. Root dry weight of 50 L pot was 1. 78 and
    3. 38 - fold as that of 20 L and 10 L pots , respectively. Roots with different diameters were classified into three groups
    as coarse roots (d > 3 mm) , medium roots (d = 0. 5 - 3. 0 mm) and fine roots (d < 0. 5 mm) . Root restriction could
    change the composition of coarse , medium and fine roots in the whole root system. Root restriction resulted in more fine
    roots and less medium roots. Growth above ground was also affected negatively by root restriction. Leaf and shoot dry
    weight , leaf area , photosynthesis decreased significantly with root restriction.
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研究报告

  • Effect of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on the Ultrastructure of Apricot VarietyPollen
  • Peng Weixiu;Yang Jianmin;Zhang Qin;Meng Qingrui;Li Shaohua;Sun Fuzai;and Zhao Tingchang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 453-456.
  • Abstract ( 1303 ) HTML ( 895 ) PDF (254KB) ( 895 )    
  • The ultrastructure of three kinds of Apricot pollens by INA and low temperature was investigated with transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the ultrastructure of pollen was influenced by the INA. ( 1) The pollen exine was disintegrated by INA. ( 2) The orgalleras in pollen were destroyed. The membrane of mitochondrion vanished. The ridge of mitochondrion was changed into vesiculation; Some membraned inclusions appear to be derived
    from the endoplasmic reticulm elements which arrange themselves in a multipleconcentric or convoluted manner around portions of cytoplasm; The quantity of ribosome was reduced. Because the orgalleras in pollen were destroyed, therewere some cavities in pollen grain. The pollen grain had no life&#1048577;force. In addition, more serious damage was shown in ultrastructure of pollen by INA and low temperature. Therefore, INA bacteria was one major factor to incine forst damage to Apricot flowers.
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  • RAPD Analysis of Germplasm Resources in Pyrus
  • Qu Baihong;Jin Xianglan;Chen Yanqiu;Liu Hongzhang;and Wang Piwu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 460-462.
  • Abstract ( 1259 ) HTML ( 1444 ) PDF (162KB) ( 1444 )    
  • Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on 40 Pyrus cultivars. Based on the similar coefficient , the clustering analysis was done. The results showed that Pyrus communis L. originated in Europe could be distinctly distinguished from the other three species originated in China by RAPD technique. Three Chinese species were not clustered into different groups respectively , but there were different distance between any two acces-sions. It showed that RAPD technique could be used in the lassification and identification of Pyrus of species.
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  • Effect of Different Stocks on Resistance , Physical Activity and Output of Eggplant
  • Gao Meixiu;Li Shuhe;Liu Yuqin;Sun Shihai;Zhao Renshun;Bian Fengmei;and YanXiufeng
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 463-465.
  • Abstract ( 1318 ) HTML ( 1511 ) PDF (152KB) ( 1511 )    
  • Experiments showed that certicillum wilt of eggplant could be inhibited effectively by grafting with wild eggplant as stock , But the resistance to eggplant phomopsis blight and windfall had relation with different kinds of
    eggplant stocks. The grafted eggplants with‘Gangguoqie’eggplant and‘Chiqie’eggplant as the stocks were infected easily by eggplant phomopsis blight and windfall. The eggplant grafted with‘Tuo Lu Ba Mu’stock had high resistance to eggplant phomopsis blight and windfall. The resistant power of windfall related to the root distribution. Grafted eggplant had higher physical activity , photosynthesis rate and higher concentration of carbon dioxide in intercellular space. Comparing with the contrast , both transpiration and stomatal conductance of the grafted eggplants were obviously higher.
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  • Diagnosis and Genetic Analysis of Resistance to Cauliflower Mosaic Virus inBrassica Crops Which Was Transformed with CaMV Gene VI
  • Gong Zhenhui;He Yuke;Song Xianjun;Zhang Guanghui;and Zhang Guihua
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 466-468.
  • Abstract ( 1458 ) HTML ( 923 ) PDF (127KB) ( 923 )    
  • The genetically engineered cross&#1048577;protection which was supplied by weak strain Bari&#1048577;1 gene VI of cauliflower mosaic virus ( CaMV) , and its genetic regularity were studied with Brassica crops ( Brassica camp estris ssp.
    rap ifera, B . campestris ssp. pekinensis , B . campestris var . parachinensis , B. campestris var. purpurea, B .juncea , B . oleracea var. botrytic ) which were transformed with CaMV gene VI. The results showed that 48. 08% of
    transformed Brassica plants was resistance to CaMV strain CABB&#1048577;BJI and 51. 92% of them was susceptible to CaMV CABB&#1048577;BJI. The virus resistant gene ( CaMV Bari&#1048577;1 gene VI ) in 76% of first selfed progeny presented typically
    Mendelian single dominance gene inheritance. The ratio of virus&#1048577;resistant to virus&#1048577;susceptible plants in some of first selfed progeny presented Mendelian inheritance, such as, 15 1, 1 1, 1 3 and 1 95.
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  • Studies on Anther Culture of Lily
  • Chu Yunxia;Chen Longqing;Huang Yanwen;and Zhang Yongchun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 472-474.
  • Abstract ( 1825 ) HTML ( 1228 ) PDF (102KB) ( 1228 )    
  • The following experimental results have been obtained : Compared with other stage , microspores at uninucleate stage were more suitable for culture. Calli were induced from anthers of lily placed on modified MS media
    supplemented with different concentrations of 2 ,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2 ,4-D) and Kinetin (KT) according to homogeneous design. The cold pretreatment (4 ℃, 2 days) couldn’t obviously raise the callus induction frequency in anther culture ; The pollen calli were transferred to modified MS media with different concentrations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) . The results indicated that modified MS media with 2. 0 - 4. 0 mg·L-1 NAA were optimal for the differentiation of pollen callus. Cytological examination of mitotic root tip cells from green plants showed that about 25 % of them were haploid and others were diploid.
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新品种

  • A New Cultivar of Chestnut (Castanea Molli Ssima) —‘Taili 1’
  • Ming Guidong;Wang Bin;Zhou Guangfang;Liu Jiafen;andHao Yunying
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 476-476.
  • Abstract ( 1077 ) HTML ( 796 ) PDF (171KB) ( 796 )    
  • ‘Taili 1’was first selected as the mutant tree from the population of Niandiban, whose nuts stick to bur when they mature thoroughly, does not fall to ground. The nut of Taili 1! is shining, reddish&#1048577;brown, large, weights
    about 18 g, matures early and does not stick. The chemical measurments have been made with the results of 59. 5% of water, 22. 5% of sugar, 65. 6 % of starch and 7. 3% of protein. The expetriments have been carried on for many years and shown that it is one of good cultivar suitable to stir&#1048577;frying, with superior qualities, early maturation, high nutrition and long-life storage.
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  • A New Summer Squash Variety —‘Jin xihulu 1’
  • Lei Fengjin;Zhang Zhanbei;Wang Jiaojuan;Geng Bo;and Lei Xuemei
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 478-478.
  • Abstract ( 1370 ) HTML ( 686 ) PDF (162KB) ( 686 )    
  • ‘Jin xihulu 1’ is a F1 hybrid of early summer squash . Its period of duration is about 40 days or so. oung fruit is long stick- shaped wih green coat, 20- 25 cm long, 4- 5 cm in diameter. The shape is uniform, with ood commerciality and less seeds. It can be used to make salad. Generally , the yield is 97. 5 - 105 t/ hm2. The yield an be increased by 18. 5 %, compared with Zaoqing! F1. It is with good vigor and resistance to disease, suitable to e grown in green house and plastic film mulched fields.
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  • A New Cucumber F1 Hybrid —‘Zhongnong 201’
  • Shen Di;Yin Yan;Qi Chunzhang;Li Xixiang;and Song Jiangping
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2001, 28(5): 481-481.
  • Abstract ( 1418 ) HTML ( 725 ) PDF (63KB) ( 725 )    
  • ‘Zhongnong 201’is a new cucumber F1 hybrid, which is suitable for cultivation under protection. Its fruit is straight without yellow stripe, 26- 32 cm in length with luster and dark green peel, crisp and tender flavor of
    good quality. Average fruit weight is 150- 200 g. It is 5- 6 days earlier in maturity and 100% higher in early yield and 10% higher in total yield than ‘Zhongnong 5’. It is high resistance to powdery mildew, angular leaf spot, fusarium wilt and middle resistance to downy mildew of cucumber.
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