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2022, Vol.49, No.5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

Research Papers

  • Comparative Study on Drought Resistance of Different Apple Dwarfing Rootstock and Scion Combinations
  • FENG Chen, HUANG Xuewang, LI Xingliang, ZHOU Jia, LI Tianhong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 945-957. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0671
  • Abstract ( 610 ) HTML ( 583 ) PDF (2728KB) ( 583 )    
  • To evaluate the effect of apple dwarfing rootstocks on the scion growth and drought resistance,we used four-year-old apple trees with different scion-rootstock combinations(‘Fuji’/G935,‘Fuji’/M9-T337 and‘Fuji’/SH6). Morphology analysis of these three apple trees showed that‘Fuji’scion grown on SH6 exhibited significantly reduced leaf thickness,palisade tissue thickness and stomatal density compared with the‘Fuji’grafted on G935 and M9-T337. Furthermore,three kinds of apple trees were exposed to drought stress treatment for determining their drought tolerance and recovery feature after re-watering. The analysis of drought-related physiology parameters indicated that compared with the other two grafted combinations,the‘Fuji’/SH6 combination displayed enhanced water use efficiency(WUE),osmoregulation substance content,superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and ABA content,and the reduced malondialdehyde(MDA)content,net photosynthetic rate(Pn),transpiration rate(Tr)and stomatal conductance(Gs)under drought stress. The results of membership function analysis showed that‘Fuji’/SH6 had the optimal drought resistance,followed by‘Fuji’/G935,and‘Fuji’/M9-T337 had the worst drought resistance. Overall,‘Fuji’/SH6 grafted combination showed excellent drought resistance.

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  • Molecular Evolution of MiR168 Family and Their Expression Profiling During Dormancy of Pyrus pyrifolia
  • LIANG Qin, ZHANG Yanhui, KANG Kaiquan, LIU Jinhang, LI Liang, FENG Yu, WANG Chao, YANG Chao, LI Yongyu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 958-972. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0103
  • Abstract ( 239 ) HTML ( 368 ) PDF (7508KB) ( 368 )    
  • To explore the evolutionary characteristics of miR168 gene family and its expression pattern in dormancy process of pear,the mature and precursor sequences of all miR168 family members in plants were obtained from miRBase 22.0 and miRNA library of pear(‘Huanghua’)created by our laboratory. We cloned two precursors of miR168 from the pear flower buds,which contained two mature sequences. Bioinformatics analysis and real-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR)were used to analyze the mature sequences and the pre-miR168 sequences of the miR168 family of pear. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with known plant miR168,and based on target genes prediction,the expression of miR168 and target genes during dormancy development in pear was analyzed. RNAfold prediction analysis showed that the pre-miR168 sequence of pear could form stable hairpin structure. Further analysis showed that the sequences of both ends of plant pre-miR168 were conservative,while the intermediate sequences were not. The mature miR168 was highly conserved,and the evolutionary tree analysis was mainly divided into two categories. Phylogenetic analysis found that the affinity of pre-miR168 of pear was closely related to apple,which showed that species affinity is the main factor for the evolutionary characteristics of the precursor of miR168 family. PsRNA target prediction showed that a total of 21 potential mRNAs of target genes were regulated by miR168 by means of cleavage,which mainly contained protein argonaute 1AGO1)and callose synthase 3CalS3). qRT-PCR analysis showed that a dynamic change of “rise-decline expression pattern of miR168a was observed during the dormancy process of pear bud. In addition,the expression of target gene AGO1 showed an increase trend,while the expression of target gene CalS3 showed a decrease trend. Furthermore,the expression of CalS3 showed a negative correlation with germination rate of pear bud,declined with the increase of germination rate. Taken together,the work also showed that the sequence of plant miR168s was highly conserved,and may regulate flower bud dormancy together with AGO1 through ABA. The up-regulated expression of miR168a in pear may inhibit the expression of CalS3 and thus promote the release of dormancy in pear during dormancy in winter.

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  • Magnesium Deficiency Altered in Iron Absorption,Subcellular Distribution,and Chemical Forms in Citrus Seedlings
  • JIA Yamin, XU Hao, HU Wenlang, WANG Yuwen, YE Xin, CHEN Lisong, LI Yan, GUO Jiuxin
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 973-983. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0197
  • Abstract ( 213 ) HTML ( 103 ) PDF (1600KB) ( 103 )    
  • Citrus is mainly grown in acid red soil region of southern China,which has Mg deficiency and rich in Fe. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of Mg deficiency on Fe absorption,subcellular distribution,and chemical forms in citrus seedlings. Citrus sinensis‘Xuegan’sand cultured in greenhouse was used as experimental materials,which was treated with Mg sufficiency(2 mmol · L-1 Mg2+)and Mg deficiency(0 mmol · L-1 Mg2+). After 11 months,the plant samples were collected to determine the biomass and Fe content,measure the Fe subcellular fractions and chemical forms,and calculate the Fe accumulation and distribution in different organs of citrus seedlings. Compared with Mg sufficiency treatment,the biomass of citrus plants was decreased by 40.32% under Mg deficiency treatment,which was decreased by 34.90%,39.61%,and 47.17% in leaf,stem and root,respectively. Mg deficiency treatment significantly increased Fe content in different organs,in which leaf,stem,and root increased by 25.32%,31.06%,and 53.94%,respectively. Also,Fe mainly accumulated in the root between treatments,which the proportion was more than 75%. Mg deficiency treatment significantly increased Fe content in different subcellular fractions,and it showed a general trend which was cell wall > organelle > soluble fraction between treatments,and the proportion of Fe content in the cell wall was more than 55% in branch leaves,upper leaves,lower leaves,and root tips. Moreover,Mg deficiency treatment not only significantly increased Fe content in various chemical forms in root tips,but also increased it in the phosphoric acid and oxalic acid forms and decreased it in the water-soluble form in leaf organs. However,the Fe mainly exists in the phosphoric acid and oxalic acid forms in different organs between treatments,which accounted for nearly 50%.

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  • Genome-wide Identification of Grape GRF Family and Expression Analysis
  • LIANG Chen, SUN Ruyi, XIANG Rui, SUN Yimeng, SHI Xiaoxin, DU Guoqiang, WANG Li
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 995-1007. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0533
  • Abstract ( 316 ) HTML ( 204 ) PDF (4074KB) ( 204 )    
  • The gene structure analysis,protein conserved motif identification,subcellular localization prediction,synteny analysis,phylogenetic analysis,and cis-acting elements analysis of Growth-regulating factor(GRF)family members were performed. Expression patterns of grape GRF genes in different plant parts and against different hormone applications were analyzed. Further expression patterns were compared during different stages of seed development in seeded and seedless cultivars. Eight grape GRF genes were identified and divided into four groups(A-D). Seven of the genes were unevenly distributed on six chromosomes having and the number of amino acids was 213-604. All grape GRF proteins were predicted in the nucleus. Moreover,VvGRFs in the same clade showed conserved exon-intron structure and motif distribution patterns. All GRF proteins contained QLQ and WRC domains in the N-terminal region and at least one TQL or FFD domain in the C-terminal region. Synteny analysis showed that VvGRF3 and VvGRF4 were segmentally duplicated. Various cis-acting elements related to growth and development,hormones response,and stresses were found in the promoter region of VvGRF genes. Expression analysis illustrated that most of the VvGRFs were highly expressed in vegetative organs i.e. leaves. However,VvGRF2 was highly expressed in reproductive organs like flowers and fruits. The expression of VvGRF3 and VvGRF6 was significantly higher during seed development in seedless grapes as compared to seeded grapes,while VvGRF8 showed high expression in seeded grapes. The expression of VvGRF genes was induced against GA3 and IAA treatments,and most of the VvGRFs were down-regulated at 0.5 or 1 h.

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  • Evaluation of Main Phenolic Compounds in Different Types of Peach Germplasm Resources
  • CAI Zhixiang, YAN Juan, SU Ziwen, XU Ziyuan, ZHANG Minghao, SHEN Zhijun, YANG Jun, MA Ruijuan, YU Mingliang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1008-1022. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0138
  • Abstract ( 223 ) HTML ( 139 ) PDF (1159KB) ( 139 )    
  • The contents of six phenolic compounds and three organic acids in pulp of 257 peach germplasms were determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC),the mono-phenol and total phenol contents in different germplasms were compared,and their contents in different types of germplasm resources with different pulp color,pulp texture and organic acid content were discussed. The results showed that the contents of total phenol in peach pulp ranged from 31.05 to 919.11 mg · kg-1 FW,among which the contents of chlorogenic acid,neochlorogenic acid and catechin were highest,the mean values were 56.60,43.20 and 25.79 mg · kg-1 FW,respectively,the average contents of epicatechin and rutin were 14.77 and 14.85 mg · kg-1 FW,respectively,and the content of ferulic acid was lowest with 1.57 mg · kg-1 FW. Eleven special varieties were selected according to the mono-phenol and total phenol contents. In different types of pulp color,the total phenol content in red pulp were significantly higher than those in white and yellow pulp(P < 0.05),the total phenol content of yellow pulp was no significant difference with white pulp. In different types of pulp texture,the phenolics content of crisp peach were significantly higher than in melting and stony hard peach(P < 0.05). The total phenol content was significantly correlated with the contents of malic acid,citric acid and quinic acid in pulp.

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  • PavMYB10.1 Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation by Positively Regulating PavRiant in Sweet Cherry
  • LI Lixian, WANG Shuo, CHEN Ying, WU Yingtao, WANG Yaqian, FANG Yue, CHEN Xuesen, TIAN Changping, FENG Shouqian
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1023-1030. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0732
  • Abstract ( 200 ) HTML ( 128 ) PDF (1813KB) ( 128 )    
  • To understand how GST regulates anthocyanin accumulation in sweet cherry,a phi-type GST gene PavRiant(XM_021968160)was cloned from the sweet cherry cultivar‘Tieton’. The effects of PavRiant on anthocyanin accumulation in sweet cherry were investigated using phylogenetic tree analysis,real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,transient silencing assay,yeast one-hybrid(Y1H),electrophoretic mobility shift assay(EMSA),and luciferase reporter assay. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PavRiant has the highest similarity to the PpRiant protein sequence of peach. During sweet cherry fruit development,the changing trends of PavRiant expressions were consistent with anthocyanin contents and PavMYB10.1 expressions. Further,the transient silencing assay showed that PavRiant plays an essential role in regulating anthocyanin accumulation. Y1H and EMSA experiments showed that PavMYB10.1 binds to the MRE sequence of the PavRiant promoter. Finally,the luciferase assay showed that PavMYB10.1 positively regulates the activity of the PavRiant promoter. Therefore,PavMYB10.1 can promote anthocyanin accumulation by positively regulating PavRiant expression in sweet cherry.

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  • Whole-genome Identification and Expression Analysis of SNAT,ASMT and COMT Families of Melatonin Synthesis Pathway in Dimocarpus longan
  • XIAO Xuechen, LIU Mengyu, JIANG Mengqi, CHEN Yan, XUE Xiaodong, ZHOU Chengzhe, WU Xingjian, WU Junnan, GUO Yinsheng, YEH Kaiwen, LAI Zhongxiong, LIN Yuling
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1031-1046. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0003
  • Abstract ( 166 ) HTML ( 175 ) PDF (5673KB) ( 175 )    
  • In this study,on the basis of the third-generation longan(Dimocarpus longan Lour.)genome and transcriptome database,the possible rate-limiting genes of melatonin synthesis:SNAT(serotonin N-acetyltransferase),ASMT(N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase)and COMT(caffeic acid O-methyltransferase)family genes were identified and analyzed. The effect of different exogenous phytohormones on the melatonin content was detected,and,the expression patterns of SNAT,ASMT,and COMT genes in respond to exogenous phytohormone treaments and during early somatic embryogenesis(SE)in longan were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR). The results showed that the longan SNAT(DlSNAT),ASMT(DlASMT),and COMT(DlCOMT)family genes have two,18,and seven members,respectively;the protein domains and motifs in each same gene family are conserved,and DlASMTs and DlCOMTs are highly similar;phylogenetic analysis showed that the SNAT family of Dimocarpus longan,Arabidopsis thaliana,Oryza sativa,Triticum aestivum,Solanum lycopersicum,Capsicum annuum,and Selaginella tamariscina could be divided into three subgroups,while the ASMT and COMT families were highly homology and were divided into three subgroups;the cis-acting elements analysis revealed that a large number of auxin-,gibberellin-,methyl jasmonate-,salicylic acid-,and abscisic acid-related elements existed in the promoters of DlSNAT,DlASMT and DlCOMT family members;qRT-PCR analysis showed that most of DlASMTs and DlCOMTs were highly expressed in the incomplete embryonic compact structure and globular embryo stages of somatic embryo(SE),while DlSNAT1 and DlSNAT2 were highly expressed during early SE in longan;the content of endogenous melatonin was significantly reduced under exogenous 0.1 mmol · L-1 of indole-3-acetic acid(IAA)treatment,whereas significantly increased under exogenous gibberellin A3(GA3),methyl jasmonate(MeJA),salicylicacid(SA)and abscisic acid(ABA)treatments;at the same time,the expression changes of DlSNATs consist with the change trends of endogenous melatonin content. The results indicated that DlSNATs,DlASMTs and DlCOMTs may involved in the synthesis of endogenous melatonin thereby regulate the process of early SE in longan.

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  • Effects of Combined Application of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Root Zone Soil and Root Characteristics of Cucumber in Plastic Greenhouse
  • HAN Lujie, FENG Yiqing, YANG Xiuhua, ZHANG Ning, BI Huangai, AI Xizhen
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1047-1059. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0348
  • Abstract ( 205 ) HTML ( 228 ) PDF (3551KB) ( 228 )    
  • For the problems of soil environment deterioration,yield and quality decline caused by excessive application of chemical fertilizer in current cucumber production,we used‘Jinyou 35’ cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.) as the experimental material,and investigated the effect of organic fertilizer(cow dung∶bean cake = 4∶1)and chemical fertilizer ratio on the soil environment of root zone and root characteristics of cucumber,through six continuous positioning fertilization in three years(2018–2020). We set up three organic fertilizer/chemical fertilizer treatments which were 30%/70%,40%/60%,50%/50% and a pure chemical fertilizer control. The results showed that the root zone soil of control plants showed a gradually decrease in pH and porosity,increase in electrical conductivity(EC),and little change in bulk density as planting time increased,and it started acidification and hardening. However,the soil of the three treatments revealed a little change in pH,decrease in bulk density,but increase in porosity and EC. At the same planting time,no significant differences were observed in physical properties of root zone soil among treatments of the three treatments,whereas,the three treatments displayed much higher pH and porosity,but significantly lower bulk density and EC in root zone soil relative to the control. The contents of alkaline nitrogen,available phosphorus,available potassium and organic matter in the three treatments all increased gradually with planting time. There were no significant difference in alkaline nitrogen,available phosphorus,available potassium and organic matter among the three treatments and the control at the first three crops,but the three treatments were much higher than the control in the following three crops,especially in 40%/60% treatment. The quantity of bacteria,fungi and actinomycetes in rhizosphere soil of the three treatments also showed an increasing trend,and the increase in them was the largest in 40%/60% treatment,while that in control was the least. From the high-throughput sequencing results,we found that the three treatments showed a significant increase in the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria,such as Sphingomonas and Bacillus,while an obvious decrease in that of pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium in rhizosphere soil,compared with the control. The three treatments also markedly increased the bacterial diversity,but decreased the fungus diversity,and consequently improved the microbial community structure in rhizosphere soil of cucumber,especially in 40%/60% treatment. Compared with the control,the activities of nitrate reductase(NR),urease(URE),acid phosphatase(ACP),catalase(CAT)and invertase(INV)all distinctly increased in 30%/70%,40%/60%,and 50%/50%-treated rhizosphere soil of cucumber. The root length,root volume,root superficial area and root tip numbers were much more in the three treatments than in the control plants. However,the root diameter was significantly lesser in the three treatments than that in the control. The root activities also showed an obvious increase in the three treatments relative to the control. By comprehensive comparison,40% organic fertilizer + 60% chemical fertilizer treatment revealed the best soil environment,highest root activity,optimum root characteristics and maximum root growth among the four treatments,and it could to be applied in cucumber production under this experiment condition.

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  • Identification of Viruses Infecting Peppers in Guangxi by Small RNA Deep Sequencing and RT-PCR
  • GONG Mingxia, ZHAO Hu, WANG Meng, WU Xing, ZHAO Zengjing, HE Zhi, HUANG Jinmei, MENG Shengde, WANG Risheng
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1060-1072. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0673
  • Abstract ( 137 ) HTML ( 104 ) PDF (2090KB) ( 104 )    
  • We analysed diseased pepper samples with typical viral symptoms collected from nine of major pepper growing areas in Guangxi through small RNA(sRNA)deep sequencing technology and RT-PCR. The results showed that ten viruses were identified,among which,Capsicum frutescens endornavirus 1(CFEV 1),pepper cryptic virus 2(PCV 2),tobacco mild green mosaic virus(TMGMV)and pepper vein yellows virus(PeVYV)were detected on pepper for the first time in Guangxi,and CFEV 1 was also detected for the first time in China. The total detection rates of ten viruses in 75 diseased pepper samples were 8.00%-66.67%. The top five viruses were chilli veinal mottle virus(ChiVMV,66.67%),pepper veinal mottle virus(PVMV,62.67%),cucumber mosaic virus(CMV,41.33%),CFEV 1(32.0%)and PCV 2(26.67%). ChiVMV,PVMV,CMV and CFEV 1 were found to be widely distributed across seven to nine of the major pepper growing areas of Guangxi,which were speculated to be the dominant viruses infecting peppers in Guangxi. Except Guilin,other eight regions contained at least one to three of the four dominant viruses. However,in Guilin,the detection rates of these four dominant viruses were relatively low or negligible,and the dominant viruses were PMMoV and PCV 2. The mixed infection rate of pepper virus disease was up to 94.66% in Guangxi,and the mixed infection were mostly caused by a complex of three(detection rate 42.67%)or four viruses(detection rate 24.00%)in Guangxi. Mixed infection of three viruses were predominantly caused by ChiVMV + PVMV + CMV and ChiVMV + CFEV 1 + ChiRSV both with detection rate of 18.75%,that of four viruses was mostly caused by ChiVMV + PVMV + CMV + CFEV 1 with detection rate of 16.67%.

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  • Effects of High Temperature and Waterlogging Stress on Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Metabolism of Ginger Leaves
  • LIU Shangjia, L& Yao, CAO Bili, CHEN Zijing, GAO Song, XU Kun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1073-1080. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0110
  • Abstract ( 149 ) HTML ( 100 ) PDF (1135KB) ( 100 )    
  • To reveal the physiological mechanism underlying the greater severity of ginger waterlogging in summer than in autumn,the effects of normal water supply at room temperature(the control),normal water supply at high temperature,waterlogging at room temperature and waterlogging at high temperature on leaf photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism were investigated in pots using‘Laiwu Small Ginger’as the test material. The results showed that chlorophyll degradation and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn)of ginger leaves were significantly reduced by waterlogging or high temperature stress,especially by the interaction of waterlogging and high temperature. Pn was reduced by 53.62%,26.41% and 87.59% compared to the control at 36 h for normal water supply at high temperature,waterlogging at room temperature and waterlogging at high temperature,respectively. Treatment with 12 h of waterlogging at high temperature triggered non-stomatal restriction,while 24 h was required for normal water supply at high temperature and waterlogging at room temperature. The enzymes related to leaf nitrogen metabolism of the activities of NR,GS,GOGAT and GDH decreased significantly with the prolonging of waterlogging or high temperature stress,and the interaction effect was obvious;the soluble proteins content of leaves also decreased significantly with the prolonging of stress,and the decrease was significantly greater in waterlogging at high temperature and normal water supply at high temperature than in waterlogging at room temperature treatment,and the contents of nitrate nitrogen(NO3--N),ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N)and free amino acids in leaves showed a tendency to increase first and then decrease,but at 60 h of stress,except for NO3--N in waterlogging at high temperature,all other treatments were significantly higher than the control. The results showed that waterlogging and high temperature stress significantly reduced photosynthetic efficiency and damaged nitrogen metabolic activity of ginger leaves,especially the interaction effect between waterlogging and high temperature was more significant.

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  • Identification of Pigment Components and Key Genes in Carotenoid Pathway in Mutants of Chimeric Ananas comosus var. bracteatus
  • ZHOU Xuzixin, YANG Wei, MAO Meiqin, XUE Yanbin, MA Jun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1081-1091. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0355
  • Abstract ( 97 ) HTML ( 40 ) PDF (3111KB) ( 40 )    
  • In order to explore how the phenotype of yellow mutants of chimeric Ananas comosus var. bracteatus formed,chimeral leaves in red stage and yellow mutants were taken in this study for comprehensive and comparative analysis using CIEL*a*b* coloration,pigment determination,histocytological observation,LC-MS/MS detection and illumina RNA-seq. Results of CIEL*a*b* indicated that the color of the green central part and red margin part of the chimeric leaves was consisted of green-yellow and red-yellow color,respectively. The yellow mutant showed bright yellow color with extremely slight green. The significant decrease of total chlorophyll content,Chl.a/b ratio,total anthocyanin content and the significant increase of the proportion of carotenoid and Chl.b of the yellow mutant leaf resulted in the loss of green and red color and turned to yellow. The yellow pigments were scattered in a bit of mesophyll cells of the yellow mutant leaf while the other leaf cells were transparent and colorless. Lutein accounted for 79% of the 12 detected carotenoids content which is the dominant pigment of the yellow mutant leaf. The decrease of PSY1 expression and phytoene,carotenoid,lutein content indicated that PSY1 probably was a key gene responsible for the carotenoid biosynthesis limitation in the yellow mutant of chimeric Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

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  • Identification and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum Species Causing Anthracnose on Camellia sinensis
  • GONG Changyi, LIU Jiaojiao, DENG Qiang, ZHANG Lixin
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1092-1101. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0377
  • Abstract ( 150 ) HTML ( 220 ) PDF (3168KB) ( 220 )    
  • The samples were collected from tea leaves showing anthracnose symptoms from 12 different provinces,and the pathogen was isolated and identified by morphological characteristics and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis,along with the pathogenicity tests according to Koch’s postulates. The results showed that a total of 57 isolates were obtained and divided into five types based on the colony morphology and conidia characteristics. Twenty-one representative isolates were selected for further sequencing and phylogenic analysis based on six loci(ITS,TUB2,ACT,CAL,CHS-1 and GAPDH). The results indicated that the tested isolates all belonged to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex,including seven isolates of C. fructicola,eight isolates of C. camelliae,three isolates of C. siamense and three isolates of C. aenigma. The separation frequency of C. camelliae and C. fructicola in tea area was higher. Pathogenicity assays were performed with 21 representative isolates from the four species of Colletotrichum. They were inoculated on the leaves of detached branches of Camellia sinensis‘Shuchazao’ by stabbing method. It was found that 17 isolates could cause necrosis at the inoculation site of tea leaves at two weeks post infection. Pathogenicity variation was observed among the four species when inoculated on‘Shuchazao’,and the isolates of C. camelliae showed strong virulence. In addition,different isolates of the same species displayed variant virulence. Moreover,this is the first report of C. fructicola causing anthracnose disease of Camellia sinensis in Henan Province,China.

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Research Notes

  • Exogenous Melatonin Regulates Reactive Oxygen Metabolism to Induce Resistance of Postharvest Pear Fruit to Black Spot
  • XIANG Miaolian, WU Fan, LI Shucheng, MA Qiaoli, WANG Yinbao, XIAO Liuhua, CHEN Jinyin, CHEN Ming
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1102-1110. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0159
  • Abstract ( 141 ) HTML ( 75 ) PDF (868KB) ( 75 )    
  • ‘Cuiguan’pears were used as materials to explore the effect of exogenous melatonin(MT)on the induced resistance to postharvest pear black spot caused by Alternaria alternata. To this end,the resistance to A. alternata and black spot were detected in MT treated pear fruits. The results showed that MT treatment(0.025-0.300 mmol · L-1)had no significant inhibition on mycelial growth and spore germination rate of A. alternata. However,it could remarkably reduce black spot of pear fruit and 0.100 mmol · L-1 MT treatment had the highest induced resistance effect of 45.04%. In comparison with the control,the activities of CAT,SOD,POD,APX and PPO,as well as the content of total phenolics,were obviously increased in 0.100 mmol · L-1 MT treated fruits and the accumulation of MDA was just effectively reduced on the contrary. The above results indicated that exogenous melatonin inducing pear fruit resistance against A. alternata infection might be related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism.

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  • Identification of S-genotypes of 63 Pummelo Germplasm Resources
  • WEI Zhuangmin, WEI Sijia, CHEN Peng, HU Jianbing, TANG Yuqing, YE Junli, LI Xianxin, DENG Xiuxin, CHAI Lijun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1111-1120. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0260
  • Abstract ( 181 ) HTML ( 87 ) PDF (2626KB) ( 87 )    
  • Based on 63 pummelo germplasm resources,new S-RNases were identified by RNA-seq and sequence analysis. Twenty-one pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify and identify the S-genotypes of 63 pummelo germplasm resources. Results showed twelve new S-RNases were found,named S10-RNase-S21-RNase in sequence. Specific amplification showed that 59 out of 63 materials were identified with complete S-genotype,only one S-RNase gene was identified in four materials. Among them,S2-RNase was amplified in 22 materials with the highest frequency of 34.92%(22/63),while S4-RNase and S6-RNase were not amplified in the 63 materials. The results also showed that many varieties had the same S-genotype.

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  • Genomic Identification and Molecular Evolution of the WRKY Family in Nymphaea colorata
  • PAN Xinfeng, YE Fangting, MAO Zhijun, LI Zhaowei, FAN Kai
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1121-1135. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0092
  • Abstract ( 190 ) HTML ( 85 ) PDF (4123KB) ( 85 )    
  • Sixty-nine NcWRKY transcription factors were identified in Nymphaea colorata and can be divided into three large subfamilies(I,Ⅱ and Ⅲ). The Ⅱ subfamily can be further classified into Ⅱa,Ⅱb,Ⅱc,Ⅱd and Ⅱe. The Ⅱc as subfamily has the highest number of NcWRKY members with 17 members. Random coil accounted for 39%-78% in the protein secondary structure of the NcWRKY members. Motif 1 and motif 3 were annotated as WRKY conserved domain. NcWRKY members were distributed in waterlily 14 chromosomes. All members of the Ⅱa subfamily were located on chromosome Nc4. NcWRKY members can be regulated by hormones through the cis-element analysis of their promoters. NcWRKY04 and NcWRKY18 had very high expression level in mature leafstalk,NcWRKY05 had very high expression level in flower and NcWRKY61 had very high expression level in stamen through tissue specific expression analysis. NcWRKY61 and NcWRKY63 may have a co-expression relationship with other members through the gene expression network.

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  • Molecular Identification and Sequence Analysis of Begomoviruses Infecting Impatiens balsamina
  • ZHONG Jing, ZHAO Liling, LI Tingting, ZHANG Shuiying, CHEN Yue, DING Ming
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1136-1144. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0221
  • Abstract ( 118 ) HTML ( 91 ) PDF (2642KB) ( 91 )    
  • An investigation about diseases in Xishuangbanna Autonomous Prefecture,Yunnan Province identified an Impatiens balsamina plant with leaf shrinking and mosaic symptoms typical of begomovirus infections. To identify the possible virus associated with the disease,the sample was collected and detected by PCR with begomovirus degenerate primers. The amplicons were cloned and sequenced,and two sequences(YN6198-28 and YN6198-31)of 2 763 bp corresponding to begomovirus DNA-A genome with six open reading frames were identified from this sample. The YN6198-28 DNA-A sequence shares the highest identity(94.90%)with Ludwigia yellow vein Vietnam virus(LuYVVNV),which confirmed that the virus was an isolate of LuYVVNV. Recombination analysis revealed that the YN6198-28 isolate is a recombinant begomovirus derived from Ludwigia yellow vein virus and Ageratum yellow vein China virus.

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Reviews

  • Progress in Composition and Metabolic Regulation of Carotenoids Related to Floral Color
  • HE Jingjuan, FAN Yanping
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1162-1172. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0623
  • Abstract ( 194 ) HTML ( 160 ) PDF (1641KB) ( 160 )    
  • Carotenoids are an essential pigment that plays a critical role in floral color formation. Carotenoids are responsible for giving color to the flowers ranging from yellow to red. In carotenoids,α-carotene,β-carotene,and xanthophylls provide yellow color,while lycopene,astaxanthin,and capsanthin give red color to the flowers. In recent years,there are many studies on carotenoids related to floral color. In this paper,the latest research progress on the composition and metabolic regulation of carotenoids in ornamental plants was summarized from three aspects including effects of carotenoids on color,carotenoid biosynthetic and degradation pathway as well as the function of related genes and metabolic regulation of carotenoids,such as transcriptional regulation,epigenetic regulation and so on. Our study will provide a reference for the further study of floral color.

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New Cultivars

  • A New Ziziphus acidojujuba Cultivar‘Guofeng’
  • LIU Qingbai, DONG Shengjun, JI Lianjun, CHEN Guanghui, DING Shifu, YU Qingfu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1173-1174. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0279
  • Abstract ( 313 ) HTML ( 58 ) PDF (1003KB) ( 58 )    
  • ‘Guofeng’is a new Ziziphus acidojujuba cultivar selected from the Chaoyang County,Liaoning Province,China. It’s fruit shape is millstone,and the average single fruit weight is 6.11 g. The vitamin C content of pulp is 1.1 mg · g-1,total acid content is 3.86%,pH is 2.24,soluble solids content is 31.33%. The average kernel weight is 0.040 g. The cultivar is characterized by large fruit size,high edible rate and double kernel rate,so it is suitable for medicine and edible. The average yield of 5-year-old tree was 12.5 kg per plant,and the yield was 64% higher than that of ordinary Ziziphus acidojujuba.

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  • A New Okra Cultivar‘Wan Qiukui 4’
  • YE Sihong, LIU Fei, TIAN Changjiu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2022, 49(5): 1175-1176. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0291
  • Abstract ( 89 ) HTML ( 82 ) PDF (1399KB) ( 82 )    
  • ‘Wan Qiukui 4’is a new okra cultivar selected by pedigree method from red okra QK-11-02 introduced from Chizhou City,Anhui Province. The skin of the fruit is red,the shape of fruit is straight;the length of fresh fruit is 15-18 cm;the thickness of fruit is 20-25 mm;the average weight of single fruit is 19.6 g;the number of capsules per plant is 38.9. The fresh fruit yield is 35 000-40 000 kg · hm-2. The cultivar has bright color,thick flesh,aging resistance,long picking time,good quality and wide adaptability,and it is suitable for promotion and planting in Anhui and surrounding provinces.

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