The relationship among 5-aminolevulinic acid（ALA），abscisic acid（ABA）and auxin （IAA）in strawberry roots growth were discussed. It was found that exogenous ABA treatment significantly inhibited strawberry root growth，while ALA alleviated the inhibitory effect by ABA. ABA reduced the endogenous IAA content in the root tips of strawberry，while ALA promoted endogenous ABA content. The expressions of NCED1，NCED2 and CYP707A，referring to ABA biosynthesis and catabolism，respectively，were not different among treatments，whereas that of PYL4 and PYL8，both coding ABA receptors，and SnRK2.1，SnRK2.2，SnRK2.3，SnRK2.4，SnRK2.5 and SnRK2.6，which code the protein kinases in ABA signaling pathway were up-regulated by ABA but not mediated by ALA. These results suggested that the genes in ABA signaling route were not involved in ALA-ABA regulating root growth of strawberry. On the other hand，ABA down-regulated expressions of YUC2，YUC3（referring to IAA synthesis） and AUX1（coding auxin influx carrier）. However，the down-regulation of gene expressions by ABA were not reversed by ALA. This also means that these genes are not so important in ALA-ABA-regulated root growth of strawberry. Nevertheless，the expression of PIN1，which codes IAA exporter carrier，was down-regulated by ABA，and ALA reversed the down-regulation，suggesting that PIN1 may be involved in ALA-ABA regulating root growth of strawberry. In a transgenic Arabidopsis carrying the green fluorescent protein gene（GFP），it was found that AtPIN1-GFP expression was inhibited by ABA and reversed by ALA. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of FaPIN1 in the cultivated strawberry is high homology with many Rosaceous plants，with several transmembrane regions located at both ends of the polypeptide. When FaPIN1-GFP was transferred into tobacco （Nicotiana benthamiana），the fluorescence was distributed in the plasma membrane. When the cloned FaPIN1 was constructed into an estradiol-induced expression vector and transformed into Arabidopsis，the root growth of the transgenic plants was less sensitive to ABA treatment，and the ALA mitigation was also less significant. These results suggest that FaPIN1 is an important factor during ALA-ABA regulating root growth，and the alleviation of ALA on ABA-inhibiting root growth may be dependent on the promotion of IAA polar transport in the root tip of strawberry.
Na+/Ca2+ exchange-like proteins（NCX-Like，NCL）take part in the transmembrane transport of Ca2+ and other cations in Arabidopsis. The traits of NCL family gene and expression patterns of apple MdNCL based on Arabidopsis NCL sequences and genome-wide information of apple，grape，strawberry，peach and pear were analyzed；and the relationship between MhNCL expression and cellular Ca2+ concentration in the roots of Malus hupehensis Rhed. under different treatments were investigated. Results showed that the NCL family members were highly conserved in evolution；four MdNCLs originated from apple genome all contained cis-acting components of abiotic stress response and hormone response on their promoters and had organ-specific expression patterns. Based on the conserved structural domains of MdNCL，four MhNCLs（MhNCL-1，MhNCL-2，MhNCL-3 and MhNCL-4）were identified in M. hupehensis. Expression levels of MhNCL-1，MhNCL-3 and MhNCL-4 showed a“little change-increase-decrease-increase”pattern under NaCl and CaCl2 treatments，and showed a“little change-increase-decrease-increase”pattern under ABA and IAA treatments. The Ca2+ concentration in root cells showed an“increase-decrease-small increase”trend under NaCl and CaCl2 treatments，and an“increase-decrease-increase-decrease”pattern under ABA and IAA treatments，which indicated that there was a correlation between the expression levels of MhNCLs and changes in cellular Ca2+ concentration in root.
From 2018 to 2021，carry out on-tree storage on Orah mandarin for four consecutive years. Fruit quality was collected and analyzed monthly from January to June，and temperature，rainfall，fruit dropping，fruit puffiness and sac granulation were investigated. The results showed that the rising temperatures in the spring caused the peel color to change from red to yellow and that the fruit continued to grow during the on-tree storage period. In mid-June，the single fruit weight，transverse diameter and longitudinal diameter increased by 29.2%-40.4%，7.6%-9.8% and 7.5%-11.5%，respectively，compared with the fruit in January. The content of total soluble solids were the higher in February-March（13.03%-15.97%）but decreased in April when the new shoots grew and flowered. This value then increased from May and by mid-June，it had exceeded the levels previously measured in February-March. The hundred-point test system of pulp crisp property was above 80，and the highest score was in March. The rate of fruit that was edible and suitable to be used as juice did not change significantly. However，the hardness of both the peel and pulp and the contents of titratable acidity and vitamin C decreased by 21.3%-23.9%，15.8%-45.1%，28.4%-53.2% and 27.2%-45.4%，respectively，during the on-tree storage period in mid-June compared with those in January. Spraying fungicide can effectively control the fruit drop caused by fungal infections，and storing approximately half of the fruit on the trees had no significant effect on the yield of following year. Orah mandarin stored on-tree to mid-June was of high quality，which renders them suitable to fill the void of high-quality citrus fruit for sale in summer.
MYB transcription factors not only play a pivotal role in plant growth and development，but also have an important regulatory function in plant disease resistance. In this study，based on the previously constructed transcriptome database of highly susceptible Newhall Navel Orange（Citrus sinensis Osbeck）and highly resistant Calamondin（C. madurensis）in response to citrus canker，two MYB genes CsMYB41（Cs1g06220）and CsMYB63（Cs4g12760）were cloned from Newhall Navel Orange. The full length of the cDNA of CsMYB41 and CsMYB63 were 1 304 and 1 398 bp，which had 1 047 and 1 170 bp reading frames（ORF），respectively. Protein sequences alignment analysis showed that CsMYB41 and CsMYB63 belonged to the R2R3-MYB subfamily of the MYB transcription factor family. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that CsMYB41 and CsMYB63 were highly homologous with cocoa MYB41 and castor MYB63，respectively. Subcellular location analysis displayed that both CsMYB41 and CsMYB63 proteins located in nucleus. qRT-PCR analysis showed that both CsMYB41 and CsMYB63 genes were significantly up-regulated by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Hormone induction experiments demonstrated that CsMYB41 was significantly up-regulated by SA and ABA，and CsMYB63 was significantly up-regulated by SA，JA and ABA in Newhall Navel Orange. In Calamondin，CsMYB41 expression was increased by SA，and CsMYB63 expression was hardly affected by hormone treatment. The above results indicate that the two MYB genes may play an important role in response to citrus canker.
In this study，the yeast homogenized cDNA library was constructed by Gateway technology using the leaf tissue of cold-tolerant Vitis amurensis Rupr.‘Zuoshan-1’as the test material，and the library capacity was 1.36 × 107 cfu ∙ mL-1. Using VaMYB4a113-252 C-terminal regulatory region as bait，17 candidate interactive proteins were obtained by yeast two-hybrid screening. Two candidate proteins encoding zinc finger-like transcription factors，VaCOL4 and VaCOL5，closely related to abiotic stress response，were selected for interactive validation in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplasts，respectively. Bothcould interact with VaMYB4a and VaMYB4a1113-252，respectively. The phylogenetic and protein conserved domain analyses suggested a potential interaction between VaCOL2 and VaMYB4a，which was further verified by BiFC to confirm their interaction. cis-regulatory acting element prediction showed that the promoter regions of VvCOL2，VvCOL4 and VvCOL5 contain multiple hormone and stress-response related elements，among which VvCOL2 included multiple low temperature response elements（LTRs）. VaMYB4a，VaCOL4 and VaCOL5 share the same expression pattern，but VaCOL2 is expressed differently under cold stress. Overall，VaMYB4a can interact with VaCOL2，VaCOL4，and VaCOL5 to form a protein complex to regulate the plant response to cold stress in a synergistic or antagonistic manner.
Both DNA methylation and alternative splicing play important roles in fruit development，but the links and the interactions between them during fruit development are unclear. In this study，alternative splicing events occurring at different developmental stages of 5-azacytidine（5-azaC，DNA methyltransferase inhibitors）treated and control berries of Kyoho from 25 to 65 days after flowering were analyzed based on RNA-seq data. The results showed that alternative 3′ splice site（A3）was the most frequent type and mutually exclusive exons（MX）was the least type revealed in both the treatment and control groups. There was stage-specific regulation of alternative splicing during grape berry development. The events of alternative splicing were more abundant at the early stages of berry development，and 9 683 was identified as the conserved events during berry development. There were 671 alternative splicing events which showed significant deviation between the treatments and controls，and functional annotation demonstrated that 14 of these genes were associated with methylation modifications. The significant differences in the extent of alternative splicing of these methylation-related genes in the treated and control groups suggest that alternative splicing and methylation modification synergistically regulate the grape berry ripening process.
In this paper，277 MYB family genes were identified through the genome of Actinidia chinensis‘Hongyang’. The MYBs were classified into 12 subclasses（S1-S12），most of the sequences belong to R2R3-MYB，followed by MYB-related proteins，and only one 4R-MYB identified. S11 and S12 were at an earlier evolutionary position with more diverse response structures，never the less S1 and S2 were at a later evolutionary position. The cis-acting element analysis showed that the main related phytohormones elements of this family are salicylic acid，gibberellin，and methyl jasmonate，further，there are elements partly involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm，low temperature，and cell cycle，etc. Codon preference analysis showed that the kiwifruit MYB family had three high-frequency codons （UUG，AGA and AGG）. The codon preference of the gene was A/T，and the third base preference was stronger. Through the cis-acting elements and transcriptional data of four varieties kiwifruit in winter，nine MYB genes which possible response to cold stress. It was confirmed that these genes were involved in the response to low temperature by detecting and verifying in Actinidia arguta‘Longcheng 2’.
In order to develop carbon-based compound fertilizer suitable for the safe production of pepper cultivated cadmium-contaminated farmland，a pot experiment was conducted to study effects of simultaneous biochar and different nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield，quality，Cd uptake and Cd accumulation of pepper. The experiment was designed to have three treatments，biochar + amide nitrogen（control），biochar + ammonium nitrogen and biochar + nitrate nitrogen. Results showed that the fruit yield and vitamin C content of biochar + nitrate nitrogen treatment were significantly higher than those of the other two treatments. The fresh weight of pepper fruit treated with biochar + nitrate nitrogen treatment was 36.07% and 130.15% higher than that of biochar + amide nitrogen（control）and biochar + ammonium nitrogen，respectively. The vitamin C content of biochar + nitrate nitrogen treatment was 8.39% and 11.51% higher than that in biochar + amide nitrogen（control）and biochar + ammonium nitrogen treatments，respectively. The Cd content of fruits with biochar + nitrate nitrogen treatment was significantly lower than that of the other two treatments，and lower than the Chinese food safety limit（0.05 mg · kg-1）. The translocation factor of Cd from root to stem and leaf with biochar + nitrate nitrogen treatment were significantly higher than that with biochar + ammonium nitrogen treatment. Compared with the other treatments，biochar + nitrate nitrogen treatment significantly increased the accumulation of Cd in unusable parts（root，stem and leaf）. In summary，the combination application of biochar and nitrate nitrogen can increase the yield and vitamin C content in pepper fruits，and realize the safe production of pepper cultivated cadmium-contaminated farmland. It is recommended that biochar and nitrate nitrogen fertilizer be used as raw materials for the preparation of carbon-based functional compound fertilizer.
The transport of jasmonic acid（JA）depends on the participation of transporters. ABC（ATP binding cassette）transporter is involved in the transport of various substances in plants. Four ABC transporters with high homology to the JA transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana are known to exist in tomato. Motif，protein conserved domain and transmembrane structure analysis were performed，finally，SlABCG23 was selected for preliminary function identification. It was speculated that SlABCG23 may be related to the regulation of JA signaling pathway. The overexpression vector of SlABCG23 was constructed，and three overexpression tomato plants were obtained by Agrobacterium infection. Phenotypic analysis showed that SlABCG23 overexpressed plants had enlarged flower organs，blocked pollen germination，abnormal seed development in fruits，following with decreased JA content in vivo. Therefore，it is speculated that SlABCG23 might be involved in regulating JA signaling pathway by affecting JA content.
In order to understand the pathogenic mechanism of the pathogenicity-related gene CcTLS1 from Corynespora cassiicola，virulent strain HG141025224 and the low virulent strain HG15052104 were used as the research object. Through genetic transformation of CcTLS1 gene deletion and complement of virulent strain and heterologous expression of low virulent strain，to study the role of CcTLS1 gene in the pathogenicity of C. cassiicola. The full length of CcTLS1 is determined to be 1 222 bp，which has no sequence similarity with the annotated genes in GenBank. Compared with wild strain HG14102524，the CcTLS1 knockout mutant ΔCcTLS1 showed decreased virulence on cucumber plant significantly，the conidiation and conidiophores decreased，the hyphae became thin and easily friable，the septum decreased，and the secretion of cellobiohydrolase lowered. The pathogenicity，conidiation and cellobiohydrolase secretion of complement mutant cΔCcTLS1 were recovered. Compared with wild strain HG15052104，the CcTLS1 heterologous expression mutant AH3-23 showed improved virulence on cucumber plant significantly，hyphae were thick and the septum increased，and the secretion of cellulase and cellobiohydrolase was significantly augmented. The relative expression levels of protein kinase genes CCK1，conidiation-related genes（Ccflbc，CcstuA）and melanocyte formation related genes CcSCD1 were significantly down-regulated in CcTLS1 gene knockout mutant. The results showed that CcTLS1 gene affected sporulation mechanism，mycelia growth，expression of protein kinase and melanin synthesis，and played an important role in pathogenicity of C. cassiicola.
The Stu-miR319 sequences were analyzed to illustrate the function of miR319 gene family in potato. The results showed that there were three Stu-miR319 precursor genes generating five mature sequences. Sequence alignment showed that miR319 mature sequences were highly conserved among different species，while the conservative location distributions are quite different. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these three Stu-miR319 precursor genes belonged to different clades，which had different evolutionary relationships. Tissue specific expression analysis showed that five mature Stu-miR319 were highly expressed in leaves. Three Stu-miR319 precursor genes overexpressing transgenic lines were generated，and the candidate targets of each Stu-miR319 mature sequences were analyzed. The results showed that each of Stu-miR319-5p，Stu-miR319-3p，Stu-miR319A-5p and Stu-miR319b have four candidate targets，while Stu-miR319a-3p has only two. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the cell wall of leaf vessel elements in lines with Stu-miR319 overexpressing was severely degraded. The results indicate that the Stu-miR319 gene family plays an important role in regulating the cell wall integrity of leaf vessel elements.
In this study，tree peony cultivar‘Luoyang Hong’was used as the material. Under the conditions of forcing culture，the flower buds were defoliated and treated with gibberellin to explore the effects on the development of flower buds，leaf stomatal characteristics，and glucose，fructose，sucrose，trehalose-6-phosphate（T6P）levels and the expression patterns of genes related to sugar signaling pathway. The results showed that both defoliation and gibberellin treatments can effectively promote the development of flower buds and can significantly promote the development of stomata and increase the opening of the stomata；at the same time，defoliation and gibberellin treatments could promote the metabolic consumption of energy substances，such as sucrose and glucose. The sugar signaling pathway was triggered by sensing the accumulation of sugar signaling molecule T6P content，and finally it promoted the development of flower bud by up-regulating the expression of PsTPS1 in leaves and inhibiting the expression of PsSnRK1 and PsHXK1.
To reveal the floering characteristics and breeding types of wild flower Hesperis oreophila，the flowering dynamics and floral organ characteristics，pollen vitality and pollen tube behavior，stigma receptivity，the ratio of pollen and ovule（P/O），out crossing index（OCI）and artificial pollination test of H. oreophila which were introduced to Baoding area from Saihanba area of Hebei Province were observed and studied. The results showed that the flowering period of the introduced H. oreophila population was from early April to late May and lasted 55-60 days，with a single flowering period of 14 to 17 d. The pistils and stamens matured at the same time. Pollen and stigma had the highest vitality when the flower was fully expanded，and the pollen vitality was up to 69.81%. The fertilization process could be completed within 72 hours of self pollination. OCI，P/O and artificial pollination test results showed that it was a mixed mating system dominated by selfing and needed pollinators.
In order to explore the molecular differences between the floral organs of two different types of tea germplasms，transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed on ovary-glabrous tea germplasms and ovary-trichome tea germplasm at their bud period and open period. The results showed that the differentially expressed genes between ovary-glabrous tea germplasms and ovary-trichome tea germplasm were 2 086-4 733. These differentially expressed genes involve in plant pathogen interaction， flavonoid biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism. Eighteen modules were identified by WGCNA. And three modules with the highest correlation with tea floral organ were screened out. By calculating the connectivity of genes in the module，the core genes in the network are excavated and annotated. The results showed that there were differences in resistance and synthesis of secondary metabolites between ovary-glabrous and ovary-trichome tea germplasms. The ovary-glabrous germplasm without trichome is susceptible to pathogen invasion and stress of adversity. It can improve its ability to cope with stress by regulating GST. The CsLTP may be a key gene regulating the trichome development of tea flower ovary.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the microbial diversity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at veraison and ripening stages via high-throughput sequencing. Ascomycota（percentage > 90%） and Proteobacteria were the dominant fungal and bacterial phylum in both rain-shelter and open-field cultivation patterns. Compared with grapes being cultivated in the open-field，rain-shelter reduced the richness of Colletotrichum，therefore decreasing the risk of developing anthracnose on grape berries. In this scenario，a decreased abundance of Alternaria，which was associated with berry rot and secretion of killer toxins，was also seen. Additionally，rain-shelter conditions were more suitable for the development of Pseudomonas and Pantoea，both bacteria are capable of nitrogen-fixing. The abundance of Aspergillus and Trichothecium were commonly higher in the rain-shelter treatment than in the control. NMDS analysis with Welch’s t test suggested that rain-shelter resulted in significant differences in fungal and bacterial community structure at the veraison stage（stress < 0.1；P < 0.05）. In summary，rain-shelter enhanced the colonization of microbes that are beneficial to vine growth and grape quality whilst also reducing the richness of microorganisms that could potentially cause diseases affecting grape health.
Protected cultivation provides an operative way to advance‘Dongzao’jujube mature season and avoid fruit crack when raining，leading to high economic benefits. However，environmental control in facility is critical for ensuring tree growth and fruit production of‘Dongzao’jujube under protected cultivation. The dynamics and ability of photosynthesis could reflect the environmental amenity for plants. In order to explore the photosynthetic characteristics of‘Dongzao’jujube and the main associated constraints under protected cultivation，the photosynthetic characteristics under three kinds of cultivation models，i.e.，open filed，rain shelter and greenhouse，were measured and compared at full-bloom stage. The results showed that environmental conditions in protected cultivation were largely changed compared with those in open field，especially for photosynthetically active radiation（PAR）and vapor pressure deficiency（Vpd）. The diurnal change trend of net photosynthetic rate（Pn）at afternoon was higher than that at morning in greenhouse，but the diurnal change trend of Pn under shelter decreased gradually. There was no significant difference in mean Pn among three cultivation models. The light saturated point（LSP）among shelter and greenhouse were significantly higher than that of open field. The Pn was significantly correlated with several factors，such as environmental temperature（T），PAR，relative humidity（RH）and Vpd. In particular，Pn was positively correlated with T and Vpd in greenhouse while negatively in open field and shelter. ‘Dongzao’jujube under three cultivation models showed the midday depression of photosynthesis were uncovered，which was mainly caused by stomatal limitation under open field，while under shelter and greenhouse，stomatal limitation and non-stomatal limitation were both caused the midday depression of photosynthesis. In brief，environmental conditions in protected cultivation were largely changed，and the diurnal change trend of Pn under protected cultivation were alternated correspondingly. According to these results，the photosynthesis ability of‘Dongzao’can be improved by optimizing temperature and humidity under protected cultivation.
In this study，14 pairs of SSR primers were used to cluster 42 oriental cultivars of flowering cherry based on UPGMA method，and to construct DNA fingerprints by combining primers and genotypes. The results showed that a total of 187 alleles were detected from 14 pairs of SSR primers，with an average of 13.36 alleles per pair of primers and an average of 6.10 effective alleles. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.31，the average expected heterozygosity was 0.80，the average Shannon’s information index was 2.01，and the average polymorphism information content was 0.77. In total，there were 219 genotypes detected，with an average of 15.64 genotypes and an average identified rate of 22.11%. When the Dice genetic similarity coefficient was about 0.18，they could be divided into three groups. Group A mainly consisted of cultivars of Prunus serrulata series，P. incisa series and P. spachiana series，group B consisted of cultivars of P. campanulata series，and group C only had P. dielsiana. When the Dice genetic similarity coefficient was about 0.37，group A could be divided into six groups in addition to P. spachiana‘Plena Rosea’. Meanwhile，the DNA fingerprints of 42 oriental cultivars of flowering cherry were constructed by primers and genotypes. This study can provide a reliable basis for molecular identification of oriental cultivars of flowering cherry in the future.
Main pepper red pigments include capsanthin and capsorubin，which are the late products of carotenoids biosynthesis pathway. They are important components of the ripe fruit quality of red pepper，and have a wide range of applications. In recent years，important progress has been achieved in the health-promoting function of pepper red pigments and their molecular mechanism of metabolism. This article systematically introduces the pepper red pigments’ utilization as food additive，health-care and medicine resources，factors affecting the content，the related molecular markers，gene locations，biosynthesis pathways，functional characterization of the structural genes，and the regulation of their biosynthesis-biodegradation and storage. At the end the production of pepper red pigments in other organisms using genetic engineering technologies were summarized.
‘Ruidu Mozhi’is a late-ripening table grape cultivar selected from the cross of‘Moldova’and‘Manicure Finger’. Its fruit cluster is conical with average weight of 550.8 g，the berries are long elliptic or broad finger shaped，weighing averagely 8.9 g and having purple-reddish skin，with 2-3 seeds，the flesh is crisp and juicy，with the soluble solids content of 18.5% and titratable acids content of 0.48%. The fruit ripens in late September in Beijing area. The cultivar is fruitful and good resistant to downy mildew. The yield is about 24 000 kg · hm-2.
‘Qiaolü Pearl Bitter Gourd’is a new bitter gourd hybrid derived from the LCP90-11 with strong females and the early maturing superior inbred line M5-2. The average node of the first female flower is 16.3 and 16.5 in the spring and autumn，respectively. And the first gourd is located at 17.8 node in the spring and 18.0 node in the fall. The fruit shape is long conical with green skin. There are many round tubercules with strip. It’s about 27.9-30.6 cm in length，5.64-6.34 cm in diameter，and 1.11-1.12 cm in flesh thickness. The fruit weight is 355.0-442.3 g，and the yield per plant is 1.36-1.99 kg. The general cultivation yield is about 37 500 kg · hm-2. It’s suitable to be cultivated in Guangdong，Guangxi，Hainan and Fujian Province in spring and autumn.
‘Huaitian 1’is a new melon cultivar derived from female parent T10 × male line L5. The plant grows vigorously and the fruit development period is 110 days. The average fruit weight is about 0.50-0.65 kg. The fruit is round，and the peel is gray-green. The center soluble solids content is 16.0%，and the side is 13.2%. The meat is crispy，the taste is tender and sweet，the quality is good and it is durable in storage and transportation. It is moderate resistant to powdery mildew，downy mildew and Fusarium wilt. The yield in the first and second growth cycle were 49 035 and 46 515 kg · hm-2. It is suitable for planting in overwintering greenhouse，early spring greenhouse，spring and autumn greenhouse in Anhui Province.
‘Zhengshi Zhaoxia’ is a new cultivar of Phalaenopsis with deep purple color，big flower type which is derived from the artificial crossing Phalaenopsis‘Ney Shan Gu Niang’and ‘Sogo Beach’. Average diameter of flower is 11.35 cm and the whole inflorescence has 10.82 flowers which have good arrangement，and the inflorescence is naturally curved. It is suitable for the greenhouse cultivation.
Primulina‘Return With Honor’is a new hybrid cultivar. The seed parent is Primulina yungfuensis，and the pollen parent is P. liujiangensis. The corolla salverform，tube funneliform-tubular，which is similar to seed parent. The corolla is light purple with abundant flowers. Leaves ovate，which are similar to pollen parent.