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2014, Vol.41, No.10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
  • Preliminary Studies on the Possible Mechanism Underlying 5-aminolevulinic Acid-induced Stomatal Opening in Apple Leaves
  • Chen-Ling-Hui, LIU Long-Bo, AN Yu-Yan, ZHANG Zhi-Ping, WANG Liang-Ju
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 1965-1974.
  • Abstract ( 499 ) HTML ( 813 ) PDF (646KB) ( 813 )    
  • A possible mechanism for 5-aminolevulinic acid(5-ALA)to promote stomatal aperture was studied with abaxial epidermis of detached leaves of apple(Malus ´ domenstica Korkh.‘Fuji’)combined with pharmacology,microscopy and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. It was found that 5-ALA promoted stomata opening under both light and dark conditions. It also inhibited the stomata closure induced by exogenous ABA and H2O2,and reversed the closure by Ca2+. Furthermore,5-ALA treatment was found to reduce the endogenous H2O2 and Ca2+ content in guard cells of apple leaves. Therefore,it can be deduced that 5-ALA induced stomata opening may be the result of down-regulation of H2O2 and Ca2+ content in the guard cells of apple leaves.
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  • Effect of Planting Herbage on the Growth and Absorption,Utilization of 15N-urea of Apple Saplings
  • PENG Ling,REN Yi-hua,JI Meng-meng,DING Ning,JIANG Han,GE Shun-feng,and JIANG Yuan-mao*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 1975-1982 .
  • Abstract ( 457 ) HTML ( 845 ) PDF (270KB) ( 845 )    
  • The effect of planting three kinds of herbage(Trifolium repens Linn.,Lolium perenne L. and Vulpia myuros C.)on the growth and absorption of 15N were studied in field plot using the 15N-labeled tracer method on low nitrogen level(50 kg ? hm-2)and mid nitrogen level(100 kg ? hm-2)in 2-year-old‘Red Fuji’/Malus hupenensis apple saplings. The results showed that,compared with apple monocrops,the biomass,nitrogen acquisition and 15N utilization rate of apple saplings were significantly reduced by planting herbage which was especially true under low nitrogen treatment in spring shoots growth arrest stage;While in autumn shoots growth arrest stage,compared with apple monocrops,the biomass,nitrogen acquisition,15N utilization rate and root activity of apple saplings were significantly increased by planting herbage. In autumn shoots growth arrest stage,the 15N abundance and total N content in 0–20 cm layerwere Trifolium repens Linn. planting > Vulpia myuros C. planting > Lolium perenne L. planting > apple monocrops,but in 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm layer the 15N abundance and total N content were apple monocrops > Lolium perenne L. planting > Vulpia myuros C. planting > Trifolium repens Linn. planting. It indicated that leaching loss of nitrogen fertilizer was reduced by planting Trifolium repens Linn.,Lolium perenne L. and Vulpia myuros C. Gmelin,which benefiting soil fertility remaining but also increasing the nitrogen efficiency,promoting the growth of apple saplings.
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  • Identifying Pear Cultivars S-genotypes Using Gene Chips
  • JIANG 南, TAN Xiao-Feng, ZHANG Lin, DENG Jing
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 1983-1992 .
  • Abstract ( 455 ) HTML ( 643 ) PDF (447KB) ( 643 )    
  • Based on the structure characteristic of self-incompatibility gene and the gene group sequences of 46 S genes in Oriental pear cultivars,86 probes for S-RNase detections were designed and oligonucleotide genechip was established. In order to detect the S-genotype of pear cultivars,the PCR products of S-RNase were amplified by Cy3-labeled primers and hybridized with the microarray. The cultivars with known S-genotype such as Huali 2 were hybridized with the genechip and 27 cultivars with unknown S-genotype were S-genotyped using the genechip. The DNA sequenced results of Huali 2,Xiuyu and Deshengxiang pears and randomly selected unknown S-genotype cultivars were consistent with the microarray analyses. In conclusion,the oligonucleotide genechip provided an accurate and reliable method for detecting S-genotype of pear cultivars.
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  • Identification of Fruit Cell Source of Graft Chimera‘Zaohong’Navel Orange and Analysis of Soluble Sugars,Organic Acids and Aromas of Fruit
  • WU Ju-Xun, XIAO Hui-Ling, WANG Xiao-Hua, YI Hua-Lin
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 1993-2000.
  • Abstract ( 513 ) HTML ( 709 ) PDF (403KB) ( 709 )    
  • ‘Zaohong’navel orange[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck + C. unshiu Marc.] is a graft chimaera from‘Robertson’navel orange[C. sinensis(L.)Osbeck] and‘Guoqing 1’satsuma mandarin(C. unshiu Marc.). The cell sources of leaf,juice sac,segment wall and albedo of‘Zaohong’navel orange were analyzed using SSR and CpSSR. Gas chromatography(GC)and headspace solid-phase microextraction–GC–MS(HS–SPME–GC–MS)were used to measure the content of soluble sugars and organic acids in the pulps of‘Zaohong’navel orange and its grafting parents,and aromas in the peels and pulps of these three materials,respectively. Results revealed that,juice sac and segment wall of ‘Zaohong’navel orange contained two genotype cells from two parents,the content of organic acids in its pulp was significantly lower than that in the pulps of two parents,the aromas in the peel were basically the samewith those in the peel of‘Robertson’navel orange,however,the aromas in the pulp were different from those of two parents.
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  • Isolation and Expression Analysis of DkADH1 Gene from‘Nantong Xiaofangshi’Persimmon
  • CHEN Xiao-Yun, ZHANG Shi-Jie, TU Xu-Tong, LI Ning-Ning, ZHANG Zhen, QU Shen-Chun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2001-2011.
  • Abstract ( 527 ) HTML ( 630 ) PDF (826KB) ( 630 )    
  • An alcohol dehydrogenase 1(ADH1)gene named DkADH1 was cloned from‘Nantong Xiaofangshi’persimmon fruit using homology gene clone method. The results showed that the full-length of DkADH1 gene was 1 377 bp and the open reading frame(ORF)of DkADH1 was 1 137 nucleotides which encoded 379 amino acids. It has structure domain and function domain of the typical ADH gene. The phylogenetic tree analysis of the evolutionary relationship of ADH between different species indicated that DkADH1 was gathered dicotyledonous plants,which closed to Solanum lycopersicum and Malus × domestica. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of DkADH1 gene and tannin biosynthesis related genes in fruits and various tissues at different developmental stages. The tannin content at different period was also measured which suggested that soluble tannin was gradually decline,but insoluble tannin was gradually rising in the fruit development. DkADH1 expressed in different tissue including stem,leaf,fruit and other organs. It had the highest expression level in peel. The expression was upregulated during the ripening stage of the fruit. Tannin biosynthesis pathway related genes DkF3′5′H and DkMYB4 expression were downregulated in fruits during the ethanol treated,we speculated that DkADH1 could inhibit the expression of tannin biosynthesis pathway genes to reduce the fruit soluble tannin content.
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Vegetables

  • Detection of SNP Markers of the Important Disease Resistance Genes in Tomato
  • SU Xiao-Mei, GAO Jian-Chang, WANG Xiao-Xuan, GUO Yan-Mei, DU Yong-Chen, HU Hong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2012-2020.
  • Abstract ( 508 ) HTML ( 1817 ) PDF (678KB) ( 1817 )    
  • According to the gene sequence differences,primers were designed for 4 disease resistance genes in tomato,Tm-2,Pto,Sw-5 and Ve1. After checking of primer specificity and aligning of the clone sequences of the PCR products,the HRM(High resolution melting)technology was used for polymorphism detection. In this study,5 SNPs were developed,all of which could distinguish the materials with different genotypes. What’s more,the genotype was completely consistent with the known gene. So they can be used as functional markers in tomato disease resistance breeding.
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  • Validation of a Core Set of Microsatellite Markers and Its Application for Varieties Identification in Chinese Cabbage
  • SUI Guang-Lei, YU Shuan-Cang, YANG Jin-Xue, WANG Wei-Hong, SU Tong-Bing, ZHANG Feng-Lan, YU Yang-Jun, ZHANG De-Shuang, ZHAO Xiu-Yun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2021-2034.
  • Abstract ( 684 ) HTML ( 1435 ) PDF (1097KB) ( 1435 )    
  • To screen a core set of SSR primers for varieties identification in Chinese cabbage(Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis),54 elite inbred lines were applied and 51 highly informative SSR markers that were equally distributed in the whole genome and had unique amplification loci,good stability and repeatability,were selected from the 2 129 mapped SSR as the candidate markers. According to results of Polymorphism Information Content(PIC),allele number,physical locations of loci and Principal Component Analysis(PCA)etc.,a core set of 28 SSR primers were further confirmed. Meanwhile,the dendrograms of 54 elite inbred lines based on 28 core primer combinations,51 candidateSSR primers and 123 markers(72 SNP and 51 polymorphic SSR primers)were highly consistent. Moreover,The utility of this core set SSRs was demonstrated in 262 inbred lines,which could be placed into three clusters that were largely consistent with previous classification. Finally,SSR fingerprint of 242 Chinese cabbage varieties were constructed using this core primer combinations. This core set of SSRmarkers should be very useful for genetic variation analysis and DNA fingerprinting of varieties,and would provide technical support for detecting of distinctness,uniformity and stability of new variety in Chinese cabbage.
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  • Development of dCAPs Marker for BrFLC5 Related with Flowering Time in Brassica rapa
  • ZHANG Xue-Ming, LIU Bo, HU Yun-Yan, LIU Jing, WANG Xiao-Wu, WU Jian
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2035-2042.
  • Abstract ( 637 ) HTML ( 850 ) PDF (438KB) ( 850 )    
  • In order to reveal the mechanism of the BrFLC5 gene in the process of flowering time,we cloned exon2–exon4 of BrFLC5 in twelve Brassica rapa accessions with a wide range of flowering time variation. There was a single-base mutation(G–A)in the Pi3 + 1 of BrFLC5 exon3 and subsequently a dCAPs marker for BrFLC5 was developed in the B. rapa. We screened 93 accessions from ten different cultivar groups and analysed the correlation between flowering time and dCAPs marker for BrFLC5. The results showed that the flowering time was significantly correlated to the dCAPs of BrFLC5(P < 0.05). The special marker can be easily used for marker-assisted selection(MAS)of the bolting and flowering time in breeding.
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  • Expression Analysis of Flowering Activator AGL24 and Its Protein Interactions with Regulation Factors SOC1,SVP and FLC in Brassica juncea
  • JIANG Wei, YANG Xiu-Qin, GU Hui-Ying, XIAN Deng-Yu, ZHAO Xia-Yun, WANG Zhi-Min, SONG Ming, TANG Qing-Lin
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2043-2054.
  • Abstract ( 679 ) HTML ( 866 ) PDF (763KB) ( 866 )    
  • AGL24(AGAMOUS-LIKE 24)was a key regulator to activate flowering in Brassica juncea. In order to clarify the expression characteristics of AGL24 gene and its protein interaction mechanism with another three regulators(SOC1,SVP and FLC)in flowering pathways,we cloned AGL24 gene of 680 bp in‘Qingyejie’mustard germplasm of Brassica juncea,which encoded 221 amino acids. Sequence analysisshowed that AGL24 protein in Brassica juncea has four domains,M,I,K and C,respectively containing 59,11,102 and 47 amino acids. And it has the closest relationship with AGL24 in Brassica napus. Expression analysis of qRT-PCR revealed that AGL24 gene can express in leaf as well as shoot apex during the flowering pathways of vernalization and long-day photoperiod. AGL24 has the low level expression at the vegetative phase but rapidly rising expression at reproductive phase. The peak of AGL24 gene expression in long-day photoperiod pathway is more sooner than that of vernalization pathway. Moreover,yeast two-hybrid assays showed that AGL24 can interact with the flowering signal integrator SOC1. And the fused strains were incubated on QDO/X-α-Gal/AbA plate and blue colonies were found,suggesting that the yeast fusion reporter genes AUR1-C,HIS3,ADE2,and MEL1 were activated. We also subcloned two truncated forms AGL24★ and SOC1★ after respectively removing MADS domain of AGL24 and SOC1,and found that AGL24★ also can interact with SOC1★ in yeast. β-galactosidase activity assays indicated that the interaction strength of AGL24★ and SOC1★ was much stronger than that of AGL24 and SOC1. However,neither AGL24 nor AGL24★ can interact with the core repressor SVP in the photoperiod pathway,and it was the same with the core repressor FLC in the vernalization pathway. The results suggested that AGL24 was not the direct protein target of SVP or FLC.
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Ornamental Plants

  • Using the Fluorescent Labeled SSR Markers to Establish Molecular Identity of Lily Germplasms
  • XU Lei-Feng, GE Liang, YUAN Su-Xia, REN Jun-Fang, YUAN Ying-Ying, LI Ya-Nan, LIU Chun, MING Jun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2055-2064.
  • Abstract ( 735 ) HTML ( 1590 ) PDF (293KB) ( 1590 )    
  • In this paper,96 lily germplasms collected from different countries were used to established molecular identity by simple sequence repeat(SSR)markers. In this research,20 of 172 SSR primer pairs,with high polymorphisms and good repeatability,were selected,and then were labeled with four kinds of fluorescent for amplification and capillary electrophoresis. The products of 96 samples with each primer pairs were analyzed. Each band pattern were coded by different single digit or lowercase letters. Meanwhile,according to the number of band patterns,from less to more,the order of 20 primer pairs were decided,and molecular identities of 96 lily germplasms were established. The results showedthat a total of 69 polymorphic alleles and 170 polymorphic patterns were revealed by the 20 primer pairs,with an average of 3.45 alleles and 8.50 patterns for each primer pairs,and all molecular identities of germplasms are different. This study indicated that the detection technology by using fluorescent labeled SSR markers had merits of reliable,efficient and high-throughput,and that it is convenient and efficient to establish the molecular identities of lily gemplasms using the above encoded mode of patterns.
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  • Impact of Heterologous Expression of a Gibberellin 2-oxidase Gene from Arabidopsis on Morphology Development in Transgenic Petunia
  • YU Yong, GE Wen-Dong, ZOU Shi-Hui, YANG Zi, HAN Yao, QIN Xiao-Ting, YANG Xia, GUO Yu-Long, LI Ming-Yang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2065-2074.
  • Abstract ( 537 ) HTML ( 1195 ) PDF (1075KB) ( 1195 )    
  • Overexpression of Arabidopsis gibberellin 2-oxidase gene AtGA2ox1 led to the delay of flowering in petunia. The transgenic plants were obviously dwarfed and the size of transgenic flower and the adaxial petal epidermal cells were reduced. However,the flower color of transgenic plants was not altered. The usage of paclobutrazol on flower buds had similar effects on petunia flowers as the overexpression of AtGA2ox1 in petunia plants. For the purpose of bypassing the unwanted effects raised by overexpression of AtGA2ox1,a 2.1 kb 5′ upstream promoter sequnce of the stem specific gene At3g56700 from Arabidopsis was used to drive the expression of AtGA2ox1 in petunia. The transgenic plants showed dwarf phenotype and other morphologic changes in various degrees. However AtGA2ox1 gene accumulated at higher levels in stems than in leaves and flowers and the expression of heterologousAtGA2ox1 did not hazard the development of fruits and seeds in these transgenic plants. Campact transgenic plants without obviously detrimental alternations could be found from the offspring of transgenic plants expressing AtGA2ox1 drived by the promoter of At3g56700.
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  • Comparative Study on the Breeding Systems of Rosa praelucens and Rosa soulieana
  • WU Xiang-Yu, CHEN Min, WANG Qi-Gang, ZHOU Ning-Ning, ZHANG Ting, YAN Hui-Jun, QIU Xian-Qin, LI Shu-Bin, ZHANG Hao, JIAN Hong-Ying, TANG Kai-Xue
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2075-2084.
  • Abstract ( 517 ) HTML ( 946 ) PDF (416KB) ( 946 )    
  • Rosa praelucens Byhouwer and R. soulieana Crép. are two representative wild rose species in the Hengduan Mountains,Southwestern China. Floral morphology and visiting insects were observed and artificial pollination was carried out in order to investigate their breeding systems. The results were as the follows:R. soulieana had white small flowers in corymb,styles of which were subequal to stamens in length. A single flower last 3–4 days and only scattered pollens in the morning of the firstopen day. The stigmas had receptivity on the second day after blooming and became inactivated on the fourth day. The ratio of pollen to ovule(P/O)was 11 120.5. The main visiting insects for R. soulieana were honey bees and butterflies. R. praelucens had much larger crimson single flowers,often semi-doubled and petal color of which gradually faded with senescence. The stigmas were much shorter than the stamens and located at the entrance of hypanthium. A single flower could last 6–7 days and keep scattering pollens for 3 days after blooming. The stigma maintained viability for 4 days. P/O of R. praelucens was 12 485.7;The main visiting insect was bumble bees. Both R. praelucens and R. soulieana were entomophilous plants,neither agamospermy nor autogamy. Flowers pollinated with pollens either from other flowers in the same plant or from other plants could fruit,which suggested that both species were geitonogamy selfing and xenogamy. Geitonogamy selfing significantly reduced achenes per hip of both species. However,it had little effect on achene weight of R. soulieana and significantly increased the achene weight of R. praelucens. R. soulieana had endured less pollination restriction in its popular valley habitat while R. praelucens had evolved a series of breeding features to adapt the restriction of pollination in habitats with higher altitude.
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  • Effects of Abscisic Acid on Flowering and Some Key Enzymes of Bougainvillea glabra
  • ZHAO Jia-Yu, PAN Yuan-Zhi, LI Yong-Hong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2085-2093.
  • Abstract ( 513 ) HTML ( 1930 ) PDF (862KB) ( 1930 )    
  • Bougainvillea glabra was chosen as subjects and treated by different concentration of nordihydroguaiaretic acid(NDGA)and abscisic acid(ABA). Their flowering time was observed and the concentration of zeaxanthin epoxidase(ZEP),9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase(NCED),ABA aldehyde oxidase(AAO)and ABA in the leaf were detected. Experiment result showed that ABA had a significant promotion of the plant’s florescence,while NDGA(> 10 μmol ? L-1)reduced the concentration of ABA. External ABA stimulated the enzymatic activity and concentration of ZEP,NCED and ZEP. It demonstrates that ABA can mediate its synthesis by autocatalystic reaction and single enzyme or single enzymatic reaction couldn’t reasonably explain the change of ABA level. It is concluded that ABA signal mechanism is a result of coordination and system control by a multienzyme system.
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Other Horticulture Plants

  • Correlation Between Spatiotemporal Profiles of Volatile Terpenoids and Relevant Terpenoid Synthase Gene Expression in Camellia sinensis
  • LIU Jing-Jing, WANG Fu-Min, LIU Guo-Feng, HE Zhi-Rong, YANG Hua, WEI Chao-Ling, WAN Xiao-Chun, WEI Shu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2094-2106.
  • Abstract ( 572 ) HTML ( 1967 ) PDF (500KB) ( 1967 )    
  • Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are the major tea aromatic compounds and important for tea quality. In this study,efforts were made to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling volatile terpenoid biosynthesis in fresh tea leaves. Volatile terpenoid profiles in tea leaves and flowers were constructed using GC–MS technology. Tea leaves and flowers at different developmental stages exhibited distinct profiles of volatile terpenoids. Young leaves had more abundant terpenoids than old leaves,and theamount of glycosidically bound terpenoids were higher than free ones. Bioinformatics approaches were employed to map tea terpenoid synthase genes from previously obtained tea transcriptome data. Genes encoding for the following ten terpenoid synthases in tea were found:Linalool synthase,myrcene synthase,(E)-β-ocimene synthase,(R)-limonene synthase,(-)-α-terpineol synthase,(+)-α-phellandrene synthase,germacrene D synthase,(E,E)-α-farnesene synthase,linalool/nerolidol synthase and nerolidol/geranyl linalool synthase. Gene expression profiling revealed spatiotemporal patterns of the tested genes in tea plants. Moreover,their expression patterns were positively correlated to the abundance of volatile terpenoids. Additionally,the expression of six terpenoid synthase genes were induced by methyl jasmonate(MeJA),suggesting that emission profile of aromatic terpenoids might be enhanced in practice through these gene expression manipulation.
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Research Notes

  • Origin of Meili(Pyrus L.)Based on Data from Multiple DNA Sequences
  • ZHENG Xiao-Yan, TENG Yuan-Wen
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2107-2114 .
  • Abstract ( 611 ) HTML ( 728 ) PDF (404KB) ( 728 )    
  • To elucidate the origin of Meli pear group,phylogenetic relationships among related Pyrus species were studied based on two noncoding regions of cpDNA(accD-psaI,trnL-F)and one low copy nuclear gene intron(LFY2int2-N). As a result,all Meli cultivars but‘Xiaomeili’,as well as most of the P. pyrifolia cultivars,belong to one cpDNA haplotype;The phylogenetic tree based on LFY2int2-N showed that both Meili and P. pyrifolia are not monophyletic,and Meili is most closely related to P. pyrifolia;Meili is not inter-specific hybrids,P. calleryana probably has not been involved in the origin of Meili. Origin of Meili should be further studied by investigating more samples and nuclear markers.
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  • A High-efficiency Regeneration System for Immature Embryo of Ziziphus jujuba‘Dongzao’at Very Early Stage
  • LIANG Chun-Li, ZHAO Jin, LIU Meng-Jun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2115-2124.
  • Abstract ( 493 ) HTML ( 838 ) PDF (336KB) ( 838 )    
  • Late globular stage embryos(15–20-day-old)of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba‘Dongzao’) were selected as materials. The factors influencing the rescue of the extremely young embryo,including culture medium,inoculation way,removing or keeping seed coat,growth regulator combination,as well as the concentrations of lactoalbumin hydrolysate(LH),activated carbon(AC)and sucrose,were studied. The culture condition was optimized as follows:Using the medium of MS + IAA 3.0 mg ? L-1 + 6-BA 0.5 mg ? L-1 + AC 1 g ? L-1 + LH 0.8 g ? L-1 + sucrose 30 g ? L-1,removing seed coat,putting the chalazal end of embryo into culture medium(radicle end up),and keeping the culture temperature around 21 ℃. Under the optimized condition,the rates of embryo germination and normal embryo could reach 93% and 84%,respectively. The germinated embryos were then cultured in the medium of MS + IBA 0.4 mg ? L-1,and the rooting rate reached 40%. Removing seed coat and inoculating the chalazal end of embryo are the keys for the culture of extremely young embryo of Chinese jujube.
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  • Cloning and Expression Analysis of HSFA2b from Lilium longiflorum
  • XIN Hai-Bo, LIAN Qing-Long, DONG Ai-Xiang, ZHANG Hua-Li, SONG Li-Na, YI Ming-Fang
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2125-2131.
  • Abstract ( 550 ) HTML ( 955 ) PDF (1844KB) ( 955 )    
  • A full-length Heat shock transcription factor(HSF)gene encoding 315 aa amino acids,belonging to HSFA2,was cloned from Lilium longiflorum‘White Heaven’by RACE(Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends)technique. Cluster analysis showed that the putative HSFA2b was highly homologous to known OsHSFA2s and a novel member of HSFA2. Furthermore,alignment with HSFA2 from tomato,Arabidopsis,rice and lily indicated there were conserved functional domains except for an activation domain and a nuclear export signal in LlHSFA2b. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of this gene could be induced by heat and H2O2 exclusively. Real-time PCR revealed that LlHSFA2b transcripts were induced by heat in root,bulb and leaf without significant difference and detected earlier than that of LlHSFA2a during heat shock. These data indicate that LlHSFA2b is a novel HSF-encoding genewhich could respond to heat at an early stage.
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  • Preliminarily Study on Formation and Cytological Mechanism of Unreduced Male Gametes in Different Ploidy Phalaenopsis
  • ZHU Jiao, LIU Yi-Yang, ZENG Rui-Zhen, LI Yang-Hui, GUO He-Rong, XIE Li, YI Mao-Sheng, ZHANG Zhi-Sheng
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2132-2138.
  • Abstract ( 590 ) HTML ( 1019 ) PDF (741KB) ( 1019 )    
  • The microsporogenesis and mature pollens in different ploidy Phalaenopsis were observed using squash method,besides,DNA content of mature pollen was analyzed using flow cytometry. The results indicated that there were a few unreduced gametes including haploidy gametes in different ploidy Phalaenopsis. The mean diameter of haploidy,diploidy,triploidy and tetraploidy pollens was 11.4,17.2,19.1 and 20.3 μm,respectively,which was positively correlated with ploidy level(r = 0.935,P < 0.065). The occurrence frequency of unreduced gamete in triploid(2.39%)was obviously higher than those in diploid(0.59%)and tetraploid(0.67%),suggesting that triploid was prone to producing more unreduced gametes. The unreduced male gametes in different ploidy Phalaenopsis were formed by way of dyad andtriad. The formation of dyads was due to the absence of meiosisⅠin a few microspore mother cells,while that of the triads was probably resulted from the formation of tripolar spindle at meiosisⅡ.
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  • Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Hedychium coccineum
  • TU Hong-Yan, XIAO Wang, DENG Chong-Hui
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2139-2146.
  • Abstract ( 614 ) HTML ( 862 ) PDF (354KB) ( 862 )    
  • A reproducible protocol for somatic embryogenesis was established for the ornamental ginger Hedychium coccineum using filaments and anthers. After culture for 120 days,callus was induced on Murashige and Skoog(MS)medium supplemented with 4 mg ? L-1 2,4-D,4 mg ? L-1 NAA,1 mg ? L-1 6-BA,30 g ? L-1 sucrose and 7 g ? L-1 agar,proliferated on MS medium containing 1 mg ? L-1 2,4-D,0.25 mg ? L-1 NAA,0.25 mg ? L-1 6-BA,30 g ? L-1 sucrose and 7 g ? L-1 agar. Light yellow and friable embryogenic callus was obtained. Embryogenic calli were suspended in liquid medium containing MS basal salts,B5 vitamins,100 mg ? L-1 glutamine,230 mg ? L-1 proline,100 mg ? L-1 malt extract,0.02mg ? L-1 NAA,0.02 mg ? L-1 TDZ,0.5–1.0 mg ? L-1 2,4-D and 45 g ? L-1sucrose. After 3 months culture,a homogeneous and stable embryogenic cell suspension(ECS),composed of small cell aggregates,was established. Planting of stable ECS on somatic embryo induction media containing Schenk and Hildebrandt(SH)basal salts,B5 vitamins,100 mg ? L-1 glutamine,230 mg ? L-1 proline,100 mg ? L-1 malt extract,0.25 mg ? L-1 NAA,0–0.20 mg ? L-1 TDZ,45 g ? L-1 sucrose and 7 g ? L-1 agar. White and translucent globular embryos were induced after 10 days culture,and mature somatic embryos were obtained after 20 days culture. The highest induction frequency of 4 500 somatic embryos ? mL-1 PCV ECS(PCV:packed cell volume)was derived from medium with 0.15 mg ? L-1 TDZ. A germination percentage of 100% were observed in germination media,which consisted of SH basal salts,B5 vitamins,0.20 mg ? L-1 IAA and 0.25–1.0 mg ? L-1 6-BA. Regenerated plantlets with normal shoot and root were developed after one month on half strength MS medium with 1 g ? L-1 active charcoal. Well rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized with a survival rate of 90% and grew vigorously.
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New Cultivars

  • A New Precocious and Resistant Sand Pear Cultivar‘Jinjing’
  • TIAN Rui, HU Hong-Ju, CHEN Qi-Liang, YANG Xiao-Ping, ZHANG Jing-Guo, FAN Jing
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2147-2148.
  • Abstract ( 440 ) HTML ( 645 ) PDF (179KB) ( 645 )    
  • Pyrus pyrifolia‘Jinjing’selected from seedlings of‘Housui’is a new precocious cultivar of sand pears. This new cultivar is tree vigorous and semi-spreading growth habit. Fruit are oblate,average weight is 292 g. Fruits have brown peel,skin smooth and fine flesh. The fruit is juicy and total soluble solids(TSS)is 10.6%. The fruit growth period is 120 d and it matures in late July to early August in Wuhan. The precocity of bearing of the‘Jinjing’is early,the production of this cultivar is high and stable,and it has high resistant to pear black spot.
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  • A New Mid-ripening Peach Cultivar Resistance to Gummosis‘Dongxi Xiaoxian’
  • ZHANG Hui-Qin, XIE Ming, CHEN Zi-Min, YANG Xiao-Xian, XIAO Jin-Ping, YANG Rong-Xi, ZHOU Li-Qiu
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2149-2150.
  • Abstract ( 474 ) HTML ( 710 ) PDF (160KB) ( 710 )    
  • ‘Dongxi Xiaoxian’is a new mid-ripening peach cultivar from seedlings,which is resistant to gummosis. The fruit shape is oblate with a sunken fruit top. The average fruit weight is 155 g,the maximum is 210 g. The fruit skin is covered by red or deep-red,peeled easily in stage of full-ripening. The flesh is juicy and white with moderate red pigment,soft-melting and sticky stone. It tastes sweet with aroma,containing soluble solids of 13.5%–15.2%. The cultivar is self-fruitful and productive with a fruit development period of about 120 days. The incidence and index of gummosis disease for‘Dongxi Xiaoxian’are lower than that of‘Hujing Milu’peach,accounting for only 19.6% and 17.8% of‘Hujing Milu’,respectively.
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  • A New Early-ripening Seedless Grape Cultivar‘Yuehong Wuhe’
  • ZHAO Wen-Dong, MA Li, SUN Ling-Jun, GAO Sheng-Hua, ZHAO Hai-Liang, WEI Guo-Zeng, MENG Fan-Rong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2151-2152.
  • Abstract ( 807 ) HTML ( 829 ) PDF (155KB) ( 829 )    
  • ‘Yuehong Wuhe’is a new early-ripening seedless grape cultivar which was bred by crossing‘Red Globe’with‘Wuhe Baijixin’. Its fruit clusters are conical with the average weight of 523 g。The berries are oval shape,weighing averagely 5.0 g,having a purple skin. It has soluble solids content of 16.3%,titrtable acid content of 0.49%. The fresh is sweet and without seed or residual grain. It ripens in middle August in Xiongyue. It has early-bearing productivity,high yield and middle disease resistance.
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  • A New Red Flesh Kiwifruit Cultivar‘Hongshi 2’
  • LI Ming-Zhang, DONG Guan-Yong, ZHENG Xiao-Qin, WANG Li-Hua, ZHUANG Qi-Guo, XIE Yue
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2153-2154.
  • Abstract ( 626 ) HTML ( 698 ) PDF (143KB) ( 698 )    
  • A new red flesh kiwifruit cultivar‘Hongshi 2’,was bred from cross‘Hongyang’בSF0612M’. The fruit is long-elliptic,while the fruit skin is green brown with short hairs. Average weight per fruit is 77.64 g and the maximum size is 102 g(no use CPPU). The flesh is yellow green,fruit transverse section showing red,yellow and green pattern. The fruit has sweet taste with soluble solids content of 17.1%,total sugar content of 7.26% and total acid content of 0.184%. Fruit is nutritious with vitamin C content of 1.84 mg ? g-1. It matures in mid-September in Deyang,Sichuan Province. Flourishing time tree produce 22 500 kg ? hm-2.
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  • A New Walnut Cultivar‘Linbao’
  • TANG Yong-Feng, YANG Jian-Rong, LUO Guo-Fa, XU Liang, NING De-Lu, XIAO Liang-Jun
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2155-2156.
  • Abstract ( 405 ) HTML ( 701 ) PDF (178KB) ( 701 )    
  • ‘Linbao’is a new Juglans sigillata cultivar,which is selected from wild resources in Lincang,Yunnan. Nut fruit is obovoid,the average fruit weight is 19.90 g. Walnut husk thickness is about 1.15 mm. Inside wall is wallpaper and diaphragm is membranate. It is easy to take the whole kernel. Average kernel rate is 50%. Oil content rate is 67.03%(unsaturated fatty acids accounted is 92.53%). Protein content is 15.82%. The kernel tastes aromatic. It is growing vigorously and with high yield and good quality. So the multiple characteristic is excellent.
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  • A New Melon Cultivar‘Yongtian 8’
  • ZANG Quan-Yu, WANG Yu-Hong, MA 二Lei, DING Wei-Hong, HUANG Yun-Ping
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2157-2158.
  • Abstract ( 434 ) HTML ( 881 ) PDF (163KB) ( 881 )    
  • ‘Yongtian 8’is an F1 hybrid melon which derived from a cross between the female inbred line of BZ-15-9-7-5-3-1 and the male inbred line of BH-6-12-9-4-3-1. The fruit is pear shape with single weight of 0.45 kg. The rind is white and flesh is white. The Brix in the central part of fruit is about 13%. It is of high edible quality with crisp and sweet taste and fuller aroma. The fruit developing period of spring is 28–32 days. The whole developing period is about 95–110 days.‘Yongtian 8’has good resistance to hypothermia and gummy stem blight,which is suitable for facility cultivation in spring in East China with average yield 37 500 kg ? hm-2.
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  • A New Early-ripening Chinese Cabbage Cultivar‘Jinbai 5’
  • WANG Xiu-Ying, WU Dong-Tang, ZHAO Jun-Liang, LI Gai-Zhen, ZHAO Jun, KANG Li
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2159-2160.
  • Abstract ( 484 ) HTML ( 668 ) PDF (424KB) ( 668 )    
  • ‘Jinbai 5’is a new Chinese cabbage F1 hybrid developed by doubled haploid lines Q-50 × Z-55. It is early-ripening. Its growth period is 55–60 days. It is dwarf,and its leaf-head is overlapped. The plant is 33–35 cm in height,60 cm in width. Its leaf head is 26–28 cm in height,23–25 cm in diameter. Its head shape index is 1.1. The average net head weight is 2.0–2.5 kg,its average net head rate is 81.7%,the average net head yield is 78 000–98 000 kg ? hm-2. It’s resistant to turnip mosais virus,downy mildew and soft rot. It is suitable for early cultivation in open field in autumn and the same ecological types of area.
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  • A New Cultivar of Amorphophallus konjac‘Qinmo 1’
  • LI Chuan, CUI Ming, WANG Xian-An, ZHAO Xing-Xi, LI Zeng-Yi, LIU Lie-Ping
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(10): 2161-2162.
  • Abstract ( 490 ) HTML ( 808 ) PDF (168KB) ( 808 )    
  • ‘Qinmo 1’is a new cultivar of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch.,which is bred from Langao konjac farm varieties populations by systematic breeding method. The cultivar has compact plant. The average yield is 22.75 t ? hm-2,29.04% higher than that of local farmers seed. The corm has 21.21% dry matter,which has 57.77% konjac glucomannan(KGM). The growth period is about 160 d. It is suitable to be cultivated in elevation 700–1 200 m of Qinba Mountain.
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