To explore the functions of SAUR（Small Auxin-up RNA）gene family in plant growth and development，bioinformatics methods were used to identify the SAUR genes in peach（Prunus persica）. The chromosome location，gene structure，evolutionary relationship and gene expression were analyzed，and the function of PpSAUR5 was verified through transgenic method. A total of 80 PpSAUR members were identified and divided into 12 subgroups，which were unevenly distributed on the eight chromosomes. The analysis of gene structure showed that 75 PpSAUR genes contained only one exon，and five genes contained two to three exons. Eighteen SAUR genes were found to be associated with tree growth through RNA-seq analysis. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in response to exogenous hormone.Among them，PpSAUR5 was induced by both IAA and GA. PpSAUR5 transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited longer petiole，hypocotyl，root，and less sensitivity to NAA and 2,4-D treatment than wild-type. The results indicated that PpSAUR5 functioned to promote organ elongation.
This study developed a genome-wide InDel marker map of Jinlan pummelo（Citrus maxima）genome. The next generation sequencing（NGS）technology was applied to produce the deep resequencing data of the individual，and was mapped to the reference genome using BWA-MEM. The pipeline with strict parameters improved accuracy and effectiveness of heterozygous InDel markers. The primers designment was performed by using Primer 3.0. The agarose gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction（PCR）product was used to validate the effectiveness of primers. A total of 81 effective paired primers were identified. The corresponding markers covered nearly the whole genome of Jinlan pummelo，with an average number of nine InDel markers per chromosome. Of these markers，24 markerswere succussed in distinguishing the 48 pummelo individuals，which showed that two paired markers could distinguish Jinlan pummelo and other 47 pummelo individuals. Finally，UPGMA was used to construct the phylogeny of 48 pummelo，which was divided into three groups at threshold 0.611 of genetic similarity coefficient. This study suggested that the genome-wide InDel markers developed using deep resequencing was suitable for the identification of the different germplasms of pummelo，and provides a basis in variety protection and origin traceability management.
A tetraploid plant was discovered in the native population of Hongkong kumquat （Fortunella hindsii）by flow cytometry. The leaf，flower，pollen，fruit，seed，and other characters of this tetraploid Hongkong kumquat were identified with the diploid Hongkong kumquat as control，and new tetraploid material was created by self-pollination of this tetraploid Hongkong kumquat. The results showed that compared with diploid Hongkong kumquat，the leaves of tetraploid are wider and thicker，leaf shape index becomes smaller，the stomatal density of the leaves becomes smaller and the stomatal apparatus is larger. The flowering diameter，whole flower length，petal length，filament length，pistil length，and pollen grain size of tetraploid are significantly larger than diploid，and the flower outer wall decoration density is significantly less than diploid，the fruit shape index of the tetraploid is larger，the peel thickness increases and the color index is not significantly different，the transverse diameter of tetraploid seeds is significantly different from diploid，the longitudinal diameter is significantly larger than diploid，and itsseed embryo type is polyembryonic. The progenies of tetraploid Hongkong kumquat are tetraploid. All the inbred progenies of tetraploid Hongkong kumquat are tetraploid. In this study，tetraploid Hongkong kumquat was discovered for the first time，its morphological indexes were identified. A new tetraploid was established in utilizing this material，which provided valuable materials for future citrus breeding and basic research.
The cross F1 population of Ziziphus jujuba‘JMS2’× Z. jujuba ‘Xing 16’and its parents were used as materials. The phenotypic characters of flower and fruit indexes were investigated. The fruit nutrition indexes such as sugar，acid，vitamin C，flavone and total phenol were determined. The genetic diversity，genetic tendency and genetic effect of each index were revealed by correlation，cluster analysis and mixed genetic analysis，it provides reference for further research on jujube cross breeding. The main results are as follows：（1）The distribution range of variation coefficient of numerical characters of F1 fruit of jujube and wild jujube is 8.82%-43.18%. According to the statistics of descriptive characters of fruit appearance，five phenotypes of the same parents，smooth fruit surface，flat fruit shoulder，sepal abscission，nucleation and no red halo of young fruit，accounted for a high proportion in the offspring. The genetic proportion of descriptive fruit appearance traits of male parents in offspring was higher.（2）Cluster analysis of eight indexes of fruit appearance showed that the male parent group accounted for 76.30% of the total. The fruit of male parent group was smaller and round，similar to that of male parent. Cluster analysis of six kinds of fruit internal nutrients showed that the proportion of female parent group was the highest，accounting for 67.12% of the total. The appearance index was more inclined to male parent，and the nutrient content was more inclined to female parent.（3）Sugar，acid，vitamin C，flavone，total phenol and nuclear diameter were separated from each other. The heterosis values of acid，vitamin C，protein，single fruit weight，fruit longitudinal diameter and single kernel weight were negative，and the dominant genetic effect of reducing gene was strong. Mixed genetic analysis found that the optimal model of acid，protein，fruit transverse diameter，fruit longitudinal diameter and core longitudinal diameter was OMG model，without major gene control. Vitamin C，flavonoids，total phenolics，single fruit weight，single kernel weight and kernel transverse diameter were controlled by one pair of additive dominant major genes，while sugar content was controlled by two pairs of additive dominant epistatic major genes.
The effect of ABA on IAA metabolism during postharvest ripening of‘Hongyang’kiwifruit were studied. The results showed that exogenous ABA treatment could accelerate the degradation of free IAA，increase the content of IAA-Asp，and significantly promote the expression of IAA degradation related gene AcGH3.1. Five ABA-responsive binding factor genes（AcAREB1-AcAREB5）were isolated and identified from kiwifruit genome database. qRT-PCR showed that all five AcAREB genes could respond to ABA during postharvest ripening. Yeast one-hybrid results showed that AcAREB1 could directly bind to the AcGH3.1 gene promoter. Subcellular localization assay showed that AcAREB1 was located on the nucleus. Yeast self-activation experiments proved that AcAREB1 was a transcription factor with transcriptional activation activity. These results indicate that AcAREB1 can regulate the expression of AcGH3.1 gene corresponding to ABA during the ripening process of kiwifruit，thereby promoting the degradation of IAA，and finally leading to fruit softening and ripening.
In this experiment，cabbage R2-P2，a foundation parent with head，late bolting and low glucosinolate content，high susceptibility to black rot，Fusarium wilt and downy mildew was served as the recurrent parent. On the contrary，the donor parent R4P1 is a wild cabbage inbred line R4-P1 with no-heading，early bolting，thick wax，high glucosinolate content，and resistance to black rot，Fusarium wilt，downy mildew and other diseases. Resultly，the Chromosome segment substitution lines（CSSLs）was both possessed the genetic background of R2-P2 and individual donor fragment of R4-P1. The CSSLs with 163 lines was constructed by continuous backcross，selfing and marker-assisted selection. The CSSLs contained 102 substituted segments totally，which were derived from genome of donor parent R4-P1 and evenly distributed on nine chromosomes. There were average 1.3 chromosome fragments on a line at least. The whole length of the substituted segments was 573.74 Mb with an average length of 5.62 Mb，which covered the 73.4% of complete DNA sample of R4-P1. Among them，139.91 Mb of single substituted segments covered the 26.5% of complete DNA. Besides，the double-segment replacement fragments were 231.41 Mb，which was accounted for 43.82%. Meanwhile，the total length of three replacement fragments was 201.3 Mb，covering 25.98% of the donor parent genome.
In order to screen the antagonistic strain against Botrytis cinerea，a TL1 strain with good antagonistic effect was isolated from the soil of Tibet Plateau by plate confrontation method. The results of morphological observation，physiological and biochemical analysis and molecular biological identification showed that TL1 strain was Paenibacillus maysiensis，which could fix nitrogen and dissolving phosphorus. In addition，TL1 strain could significantly inhibit the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea on the plate，and the inhibition rate was 74.32%. It was further found that the volatile substances produced by TL1 strain showed significant inhibition activity. Plate inhibition test showed that TL1 strain had significant inhibition activity against six pathogenic fungi，such as brown spot. Among them，the inhibition rate of Alternaria alternata was the highest（73.48%），and the inhibition rate of Corynespora cassiicola was the lowest （57.37%）. Physiological experiments showed that TL1 strain could colonize tomato fruit and inhibit the decay caused by gray mold，and TL1 strain could significantly improve seed germination rate and promote the growth of tomato seedlings.
Soybean straw，peanut straw and cotton straw were used as carbon source，cottonseed meal，castor seed meal and rapeseed meal were applied as nitrogen sources respectively，to evaluate the effects of novel carbon and nitrogen sources on growth，yield，appearance quality and nutrient composition of Flammulina filiformis. For carbon sources，there was no significant difference in the single bottle yield and biological efficiency of the substrate with 25% soybean straw（405 g and 122.73%，respectively）and the control substrate（408 g，and 123.64%，respectively），while a significant reduction in yield was observed in the substrate which added peanut straw and cotton straw. For new nitrogen sources，the single bottle yield of fruiting body cultivated on the substrate added with 8% cottonseed meal，13% castor seed meal and 10% rapeseed meal，were 415.3 g，421.5 g and 413.1 g，respectively，the biological efficiency was 125.85%，127.73% and 125.17%，respectively. The total content of amino acids in fruiting bodies cultivated on the substrate added with any new carbon and nitrogen sources（112.8-136.6 g · kg-1）was higher than that of the control（109.6 g · kg-1）. By principal component analysis，the comprehensive score of fruiting body in treatment with new carbon and nitrogen source was higher than that in the control. In conclusion，the suitable addition of soybean straw，cottonseed meal，castor seed meal and rapeseed meal on Flammulina filiformis cultivaion substrate can obtain an ideal harvest，reduce the cost and increase economic benefit.
In order to discover the molecular markers related to the organ traits of lotus flowers，the 18 floral organ traits of 60 lotus germplasm resources were identified and described，16 polymorphic SSR markers were screened to analyze their genetic diversity，and use the generalized linear model（GLM）and mixed linear model（MLM）of TASSEL5.0 software to carry out correlation analysis on 18 traits of floral organs. The results of the study showed that the 16 SSR markers were mainly dinucleotide repeats and trinucleotide repeats，both accounting for 43.75%；105 polymorphic loci were amplified in 60 lotus germplasm materials，with an average number of 6.5625；the primer polymorphism content（PIC）ranged from 0.2898 to 0.7029，with an average value of 0.5242；the average value of Shannon’s information index was 1.1548；and the average value of observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were 0.4308 and 0.5819. The genetic similarity coefficient（GS）of 60 lotus cultivars was from 0.38 to 0.92，with an average value of 0.67. At the GS value of 0.60，60 lotus germplasms were divided into three major populations. GLM model analysis detected 31 SSR loci，with the phenotypic interpretation rate ranged from 15.72% to 76.76%；MLM model analysis detected 13 SSR loci，with a phenotypic interpretation rate ranged from 20.25% to 78.40%；ten of them were detected by both. In addition，nine SSR-labeled loci were detected in 2-5 floral organ traits，showing a significant“one cause and multiple effects”phenomenon.
Based on HS-SPME combined with GC-MS technology，the optimum extraction temperature and time of the volatile components from Hemerocallis‘Shaman’were firstly determined. Then，the nine H. fulva cultivars of‘Free Wheelin’’‘She’s Got the Look’‘Forty Second Street’‘Grape Velvet’‘Lilly and Petals’‘Unlock the Stars’‘Web of Illusion’‘Fire on the Mountain’and‘Shaman’in the blooming stage were analyzed by GC-MS. In addition，GC-MS-O and OAVs were used to detect key aroma components in different cultivars. The results showed that the best extraction temperature was 80 ℃，and the best extraction time was 40 min. Based on this condition，a total of 197 volatile components were detected，including alcohols，terpenes，aldehydes，nitriles，phenols，esters，alkanes，furans，and a small amount of other substances. By combining peak area normalization method with GC-MS-O，27 volatile components were identified as aroma components. Based on the principal component analysis（PCA）and hierarchical cluster analysis（HCA）of 27 main aroma components，（Z）-β-ocimene and Nonanal were identified as the main aroma components in Hemerocallis. Also，it was preliminarily concluded trans-nerolidol，linalool，phenethyl alcohol，indole and estragole etc. may be responsible for the various aroma of different cultivars of H. fulva. Finally，nine samples of H. fulva were divided into four groups，one group was‘Free Wheelin’’and‘She’s Got the Look’，which did not have benzyl nitrile，phenylethyl alcohol and benzeneacetaldehyde，showingmainly woody，herbal，and floral aromas；the other group was‘Grape Velvet’‘Lilly and Petals’‘Unlock the Stars’‘Web of Illusion’and‘Fire on the Mountain’，mainly composed of phenylethyl alcohol，benzaldehyde，geranyl acetone，3-furan methanol and other substances to form floral and fruity aroma characteristics. Moreover，‘Forty Second Street’and‘Shaman’each form a separate group，containing a variety of unique substances and revealing the distinctive aroma characteristics.
To explore the cold-tolerant mechanisms of lavender（Lavandula angustifolia Mill.），transcriptomics methods were used for discovering and analyzing the molecular regulation networks in responses to cold treatments in this research. The CBF-COR regulation networks composed by CBF transcription factors and their target genes COR played significant roles in improving plant cold-tolerance. In this research，seven CBF genes（LaCBF）and 11 COR genes（LaCOR）were found with significant expression difference under cold stress. Meanwhile，four upstream genes including LaICE1，LaCAMTA3，LaEBF1，and LaCCA1 in CBF regulation pathways were found to be responsive to cold stress. It is considered that the cold signal regulation networks together formed by these genes took the key roles in resistance to low temperature in Lavandula angustifolia.
In order to explore the antifungal mechanisms of Sodium New Houttuyfonate（SNH）against Penicillium digitatum，in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of SNH were 1 and 2 mmol · L-1 respectively；with the increase of SNH concentration，the spore germination rate of P. digitatum decreased significantly and the relative conductivity increased significantly. The results of transmission electron microscope showed that 1 mmol · L-1 treatment could destroy the cell structure of P. digitatum，resulting in the dissolution of cytoplasmic components，the disappearance of mitochondrial structure and the separation of plasma wall. At the same time，1 mmol · L-1 SNH can inhibit the growth of a variety of citrus fungal diseases，showing broad-spectrum antifungal activity. When the fruits were artificially inoculated with 5 and 10 mmol · L-1 SNH + Penicillium digitatum spore mixture，the lesion diameter of summer orange was significantly smaller than that of the control group. The above results showed that SNH could significantly inhibit the growth of P. digitatum，and had the prospect of control citrus green mold.
Strawberry virus 1（StrV-1，genus Cytorhabdovirus，family Rhabdoviridae）was a new pathogen that infecting strawberry. The complete genome sequence of StrV-1 identified in strawberry （Fragaria ananassa Duch.‘All Star’）from Shandong Province，China（StrV-1-CN）was determined and submitted to the GenBank database under accession No. MW795715. In the negative strand，the 14 051-nucleotide-long viral genome with 181 and 767 nt in the 3' and 5' UTR，and contains nine open reading frames（ORFs）in the canonical order 3'-N-P'-P-P3-M-G-P6-P7-L-5'. Pairwise comparisons showed that StrV-1-CN shared 77%-88% sequence identity with StrV-1 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequence of StrV-1 isolates showed that StrV-1-CN grouped with StrV-1 isolate B and isolate 1/2017 in a subcluster.
An investigation on pepper virus was conducted. Samples collected in Xunhua County，Qinghai Province shown symptoms of plant wilt and leaf shrinkage，which were very similar to the symptoms induced by broad bean wilt virus 2（BBWV2）. To identify the possible virus associated with the disease，20 samples were collected and detected with universal primer and specific primer using RT-PCR
and 13 samples shown positive results when using a pair of degenerate primers for BBWV2. The results showed that 13 of 20 pepper samples in Xunhua County were confirmed to be infected with broad bean wilting virus 2. Further phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequence also suggested that the virus detected was clustered with BBWV2 and shared the highest sequence identities with the isolates from abroad，and relatively lower identities with the isolates of broad bean wilt virus 1（BBWV1）or Lamium mild mosaic virus（LMMV）. All these results showed that the virus infected pepper is an isolate of BBWV2.
In 2020，Iris tectorum Maxim plants exhibiting chlorotic spot and necrotic ringspot symptoms were observed on campus in Yunnan University of Chinese Medicine in Kunming City，Yunnan Province. The typical virions of orthotospoviruses were observed by electron microscope. The systemic necrotic spots symptoms were found on the plants of Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana inoculated mechanically with the sap of the symptomatic I.tectorum Maxim leaves. The inoculated leaves of Capsicum chinense Jacquin PI152225 showed the local lethal spots，whilst no systemic infection were detected. To further confirm the pathogen，RT-PCR were performed to amplify the NSs and N genes of tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus（TSWV），respectively. Sequence analysis showed the obtained sequences had the highest identities（99.79% and 100%）with NSs and N genes of TSWV isolates infecting tomato and Tropaeolum majus in Yunnan Province. The results indicated TSWV infection causes the chlorotic spots and necrotic ringspots sympt，oms in I. tectorum.
The dried tubers of Corydalis yanhusuo can be used as the traditional Chinese medicine，and isoquinoline alkaloid compounds are the main active ingredient. To identify genes related to isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis and analyze the differentially expressed genes of tuber，rhizome and leaf tissues of C. yanhusuo，transcriptome sequencing of these tissues using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology were performed. A total of 6 161，8 852 and 5 772 differentially expressed genes were identified in comparisons of tuber vs. rhizome，tuber vs. leaf and rhizome vs. leaf，respectively．KEGG enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that major enrichment pathways were starch and sucrose metabolism，phenylpropanine biosynthesis，plant hormone signal transduction and isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. Fourty-seven transcripts were identified to be related to isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis and the highest level of gene expression was found in tuber，following by rhizome and leaf.
This study aimed to establish a duplex real-time PCR assay to detect‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’（CLas）. Receiver operating characteristic（ROC）curve，net reclassification improvement（NRI），and integrated discrimination improvement（IDI）were used to analyze the accuracy of seven real-time PCR primer sets and their pair-wise combination detections，and evaluate the diagnostic value of duplex real-time PCR with primer sets RNRf/RNRr and CLas-4G/HLBr. The best diagnostic performance in the single primer assay was RNRf/RNRr with an area under the curve（AUC）of 0.971，followed by CLas-4G/HLBr with an AUC of 0.966. In combined real-time PCR detection by two primer sets，both the tandem use of primer set RNRf/RNRr + CLas-4G/HLBr and the parallel use of primer set CQULA04F/CQULA04R + RNRf/RNRr showed good diagnostic performances with AUCs of 0.963 and 0.966，and the RNRf/RNRr + CLas-4G/HLBr tandem assay had both high（85.19%）and specificity （99.25%）. NRI analysis showed that the predictive ability of the tandem use of primer set RNRf/RNRr + CLas-4G/HLBr was significantly increased by 6.00% compared with the single use of primer set LJ900f/LJ900r（P < 0.05）. Using RNRf/RNRr and CLas-4G/HLBr primer sets to perform duplex real-time PCR，it was found that RNRf/RNRr + CLas-4G/HLBr duplex real-time PCR was more sensitive than single primer real-time PCR. Therefore，RNRf/RNRr + CLas-4G/HLBr duplex real-time PCR could be used as an early diagnostic tool in low incidence areas of citrus Huanglongbing.
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification，playing critical roles during fruit ripening. Here we reviewed the changes and mechanism of DNA methylation during fruit ripening in different fruits. Based on previous studies，it was found that the total DNA methylation level in most fruits decreases during the ripening process while the overall DNA methylation increases in a few other fruits. In addition，specific genes，especially those related to ripening，undergo demethylation under the regulation of demethylase，which further affects fruit ripening. In general，the mechanism that causes DNA methylation alternations during fruit ripening is comprehensively regulated by methylase，demethylase and plant specific RdDM pathway. This work provides important theoretical reference for the epigenetic regulation mechanism of fruit ripening，and feasible suggestions are proposed for future work.
Flavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites with ‘flavan’ skeleton and thousands of derivatives. The biosynthetic pathways of flavonoids are complicated，and some of them and related enzymes have been analyzed. Flavonoids play important roles in the growth and development of plants and the formation of flowers and fruits. Studies revealed that flavonoids can response to stresses and improve the tolerance and resistance of plants. This article reviews the biosynthetic pathways and molecular regulation mechanism of flavonoids in plants，the response of flavonoid pathways to different stresses，the main roles and mechanisms of flavonoids，and the future research directions. Thus，this article is expected to providing theoretical support for the targeted cultivation of horticultural crop varieties with highly resistant，deep processing，and product development.
‘Liaoda Hongjin’peach is a new cultivar with red and yellow flesh discovered from a seeding. The fruit is oval and the two halves are aasymmetricl. The top of the fruit is flat and slightly pointed. The background color of the fruit is yellow with 50% to 100% of the pericarp covered by dark red. The pericarp is thin，and it is easy to peel off after ripening. The flesh is orange-yellow，freestone，hard and crisp，hard solute，less juice，softened after ripening，with apricot flavor and excellent fresh quality. Under the general management level，the average single fruit weight is 228.7 g，the soluble solids content is 10% to 16%. The fruit matures in late July and has strong storability. The fruit shows the character of high yield. The average yield of four-year-old trees is 50.3 kg. The fruit growth period is about 110 days.
‘Xinfeng 3’is a new eggplant F1 hybrid developed by crossing two inbred lines‘Zhonglian 1’and‘Nanxin 1’. It produces long cylindrical fruits with smooth and shining purple peel，white flesh and good quality. It is 257.5-267.1 g in weight，27.4-28.0 cm in length and 5.06-5.38 cm in diameter per fruit. It is moderately resistant to bacterial wilt. It is suitable for open field cultivation in spring and autumn in South China. The yield of commercial fruit was from 35 301 to 44 565 kg·hm-2 in one cultivating season.
‘Tianjiao’is a new eggplant F1 hybrid developed by crossing inbred line E13140 as female parent and E13102 as male parent. It is of medium maturity. It has strong vigorous growth potential. The commodity fruit is rod-shaped，the peel smooth and shining black skin，40.5 cm in length，5.0 cm in width，270 g in weight. The content of dry matter，vitamin C，crude fiber and soluble sugar were 7.0%，63 mg · kg-1，0.54% and 2.6%，respectively. The cultivar has good yield，the moderate yield can reach 91 419 kg · hm-2. It was resistant to Phytophthora Blight and heat tolerance. It is suitable for open field cultivation in Sichuan Province and similar ecological areas in early spring and summer and autumn.
‘Qingcui 1’is a new bitter gourd hybrid derived from strong female inbred line K0914 and white bitter gourd inbred line K0905. It is strong female，bearing the first female flower on the 5th-8th node of main vine with good precocity. The main and lateral vines can bear melon，and the ability of sustained fruiting is strong. The fruit is rod-shaped，light green in color，25-30 cm in length，5-6 cm in diameter，350-450 g in weight，1.0-1.5 cm in thickness，mainly with strips and round nodules，moderate bitterness and good marketability. It is suitable for planting in spring and autumn in Shanghai and surrounding areas.
‘Yuhu 4’is derived from the cross of Dendrobium officinale from Yunnan Province and Yandang Mountain in Zhejiang Province. The clustered stems are 30-50 cm high，0.8-1.0 cm thick，with many nodes，and the internode is 2.0-3.5 cm long. The leaf alternate and oblong-lanceolate. The raceme is 3 to 6 cm long with 3-5 flowers（yellow green）. Flowering occurred from April to June. It is suitable for industrial planting in Henan Province because of its fast growth，high yield and active ingredients.