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2014, Vol.41, No.8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
  • Dynamics of Fine Root Turnover in Different Apple Scion-stock Combinations
  • LUO Fei-Xiong, HOU Chang-Wei, MA Li, WU Ting, WANG Yi, ZHANG Xin-Zhong, HAN Zhen-Hai
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1525-1534.
  • Abstract ( 645 ) HTML ( 1259 ) PDF (1010KB) ( 1259 )    
  • The dynamics of alive root length density,dead root length density,annual fine root turnover and seasonal fine root turnover in five-year old apple cultivar Fuji grafted on rootstocks or interstems were investigated through four consecutive years observation by using minirhizotrons to analyze the production and turnover of fine root from different apple scion-stock combinations. Results showed that alive root length density,from vigorous scion-stock combinations Fuji/Baleng Crab were the largest,less for dwarfing inter-stem combinations Fuji/M9/Baleng Crab and Fuji/SH40/Baleng Crab,the least for trees on dwarfing rootstocks like Fuji/M9,Fuji/SH40 and Fuji/Malus xiaojinensis. Alive root length density,decreased with tree age increased. The peak of fine root production and death occurred in summer and autumn for all scion-stock combinations. The largest average alive root length density,and dead root length density took place in vigorous scion-rootstock combinations Fuji/Baleng Crab. The annual difference of annual fine root turnover and seasonal fine root turnover was huge,and annual fine root turnover in trees grafted on dwarfing rootstock was higher than that in ones on vigorous rootstock. Alive root length density,from trees on dwarfing rootstock and interstems were lower than those from ones on vigorous rootstock,which were possibly related to dwarfing effect.
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  • The Changes in DNA Methylation Levels and Patterns of Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla
  • LI Ji-hong,XING Shi-yan*,ZHANG Qian,YAO Pei-juan,and WANG Cong-cong
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1535-1544.
  • Abstract ( 468 ) HTML ( 964 ) PDF (641KB) ( 964 )    
  • Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism(MSAP)analysis was performed in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.(epiphylla ginkgo)and Ginkgo biloba(ginkgo),at both the bud-burst stage and the leaf-expansion stage,to characterize the DNA methylation levels and patterns of CCGG sites. The results showed that 22 selected primer sets totally amplified 498 and 384 loci,respectively in bursting buds of epiphylla ginkgo and ginkgo. And among them,237(47.6%)and 165(42.4%)loci were found methylated. While at the leaf-expansion stage,40 selected primer sets totally produced 767,600 and 367 loci,respectively in epiphyllous-ovule leaf of epiphylla ginkgo(YZ2),normal leaf of epiphylla ginkgo(YC)and ginkgo(CK). And among them,370(48.3%),244(40.5%)and 152(41.5%)loci were methylated. Further analysis revealed that more than half of the loci(52.1%,54.6%,64.2%)displayed changes in DNA methylation patterns in epiphylla ginkgo compared with ginkgo both at budding stages and leaf-expansion stages. Hypermethylation was found more frequent in both YZ1 and YZ2 than in CK,YC or CK. The greater variation of DNA methylation and more frequent hypermethylation occurred in epiphylla ginkgo suggested the unique DNA methylation profile of epiphylla ginkgo. These findings undoubtedly laid foundation for further discussing the origin and phylogeny of epiphylla ginkgo from the perspective of epigenetics.
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  • Comparative Analysis of Different Citrus Wax Morphological Structure and Composition
  • WANG Min-li*,LIU De-chun*,YANG Li,ZENG Qiong,WANG Yue-chen,WU Qi,LIU Shan-bei,and LIU Yong**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1545-1553.
  • Abstract ( 567 ) HTML ( 1917 ) PDF (344KB) ( 1917 )    
  • Surface waxes of Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘Newhall’,C. reticulata Blanco‘Yangxiao 2-6’,C. grandis Osbeck‘Hongxin Miyou’,C. unishiu Marc.‘Miyagawa Wase’and C. limon Burm. F.‘Eureka’mature fruits were studied by crystal morphology and chemical composition levels in this report using scanning electron microscope(SEM)and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC–MC)analysis. The results showed that the surfaces of citrus mature fruits were covered by a amorphous wax layer,on which a lot of irregular platelet wax crystals with different sizes scattered. The waxes of citrus fruit surfaces were mostly composed of fatty acids,alkanes,aldehydes,primary alcohols,triterpenoids and small-molecular metabolites. Among the five citrus cultivars,‘Newhall’navel orange possessed the largest and most wax crystals. Moreover,the total wax loads and the amounts of all wax fractions except for aldehydes on‘Newhall’fruit surface were much higher than other four species. The hexamethoxy flavone with function of health protection was first isolated from the wax layer of‘Newhall’fruit peels in this study.
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  • Expression Analysis of Seven Dehydrin Genes in Loquat
  • XU Hong-xia1,2,LI Xiao-ying2,CHEN Jun-wei2,FENG Jian-jun3,and XU Chang-jie1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1554-1562.
  • Abstract ( 499 ) HTML ( 840 ) PDF (302KB) ( 840 )    
  • In order to further reveal the possible functions of different dehydrin family members in loquat(Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.)(EjDHN),the expression patterns of seven EjDHNs were analyzed with various organs,fruit at different development stages,leaves from different seasons,leaves under drought stress and ABA treatment in cultivar‘Ninghaibai’. It was observed that EjDHN5 was highly expressed in all organs tested,EjDHN4 was mainly expressed in flower,while EjDHN2EjDHN3EjDHN6 and EjDHN7 were expressed especially high in stem. In fruit,all members,only except for EjDHN3,responded to seed development. The expression levels of EjDHN2 and EjDHN5 were relatively high in pulp and responsed to pulp development. In leaves during seasonal changes,the expression pattern of different EjDHN members was rather similar,with the highest transcript levels reached in winter,whereas the expression were also strong in early summer for EjDHN1EjDHN2EjDHN4 and EjDHN5. Under drought stress,the transcript levels of all seven genes increased in leaves,with EjDHN6 most greatly increased. Moreover,expression of all these genes responded differently,with EjDHN6 most sensitive,to ABA treatment.
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  • Overexpression of ChPSY Gene from Cerasus humilis Improved Carotenoids Synthesis in Transgenic Tomato
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1563-1572.
  • Abstract ( 697 ) HTML ( 1125 ) PDF (1022KB) ( 1125 )    
  • The ChPSY cDNA from the Cerasus humilis fruit was analyzed,digested and inserted into plant expression vector PMV,resulting in the plant recombinant vector pBI-ChPSY,which was introduced into tomato via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Twelve putatively independent transgenic plants were generated. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed 8 out of these putative transgenic lines were positive,which revealed that ChPSY gene was integrated into the transgenic lines genome. RT-PCR analysis indicated that ChPSY gene was expressed in the fruits of these transgenic lines. HPLC analysis showed that the total amount of carotenoids in the fruit of transgenic tomato was 1.62 to 3.04-fold higher than the non-transformed controls,at the same time,phytoene,lycopene,β-carotene and α-carotene levels were also increased by 4.87,2.10,2.59 and 3.25 folds,respectively. In addition,the expression of endogenous genes involved in carotenoid synthesis was affected in the transgenic lines. These results suggested that overexpression of ChPSY significantly enhanced the carotenoids biosynthesis and accumulation in transgenic tomato fruits.
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  • Molecular Cloning,Expression and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Analysis of Typical Y2SK2 Dehydrin in Juglans
  • XU Li,CHEN Xin,WEI Hai-rong,ZHANG Li-si,ZONG Xiao-juan,WANG Jia-wei,ZHU Dong-zi,and LIU Qing-zhong*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1573-1582.
  • Abstract ( 473 ) HTML ( 1013 ) PDF (633KB) ( 1013 )    
  • Reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR)and rapid amplification of cDNA ends(RACE)technologies were used to clone JrDHN(GenBank accession No. KC503061.1)from leaves of walnut (Juglans regia L.‘Xiangling’). Cloned JrDHN gene was 1 056 bp in length,containing 528 bp ORF encoded 175 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated thatJrDHN possessed typical characters of LEA family. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of JrDHN in Xiangling walnutwas induced by low temperature and peaked at 4 hours after exposed to 4 ℃ low temperature. Under the condition of natural overwintering,JrDHN gene expression increased firstly,reached to a peak in December,followed by decrease. It was deduced that JrDHN mayplay important roles in tolerating to cold stress. The transcripts of JrDHN could be detected in female flower,bark,flower bud and leaf of Xiangling walnut,especially high expression in female flower. Additionally,after analyzing single nucleotide polymorphism of JrDHN,30 SNPs and 11 Insertions/Deletions(Indels)were detected among 12 walnut accessions. Haplotype analysis showed that 12 walnut accessions were divided into ten haplotypes,and the haplotype diversity was 0.9697.
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Vegetables

  • Double SNP Marker of Ty-1 Alleles in a Co-dominant Manner in Tomato
  • GE Nai-peng,CUI Long,LI Han-xia,and YE Zhi-biao*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1583-1590.
  • Abstract ( 759 ) HTML ( 1637 ) PDF (386KB) ( 1637 )    
  • In this research,a novel method to develop co-dominant SNP markers which was called double SNP markers was developed. This new approach was used to obtain a double SNP marker named NL2-3 of Ty-1 gene resistant to TYLCV(Tomato yellow leaf curl virus)in tomato. The process of developing the NL2-3 double SNP marker included two main steps:Design specific primer pairs of resistant and susceptible genes individually based on two ideal SNP sites and mix the two specific primer pairs in one PCR reaction system with a proper ratio. With SNP marker NL2-3,we identified 5 resistant and 7 susceptible inbred lines and 3 homozygous Ty-1/Ty-1 resistant individuals,11 heterozygous Ty-1/ty-1 ones and 2 homozygous ty-1/ty-1 susceptible lines from F3 segregation population. This result was consistent with the field inoculation assay. We concluded that as the first double SNP marker of Ty-1 gene,NL2-3 can be directly applied to marker-assisted selection and would speed up the screening ofresistant breeding and cultivar evaluation.
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  • Correlation Between Rubisco Activase and Photosynthesis of Cucumber in Greenhouse Under High Temperature and Elevated CO2
  • PAN Lu,LIU Jie-cai,LI Xiao-jing,SONG Yang,ZHANG Zhi-wei,MA Li-guo,and CUI Shi-mao*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1591-1600.
  • Abstract ( 511 ) HTML ( 1054 ) PDF (335KB) ( 1054 )    
  • The diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate,Rubisco activity,Rubisco activase(RAC)activity,transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration of cucumber leaves in greenhouse were studied under high temperature and elevated CO2,and the relationship between photosynthetic rate and Rubisco activity,Rubisco activase activity were also analyzed. Main results are as follows:①The photosynthetic rate,Rubisco activity and Rubisco activase activity showed distinct diurnal changes under high temperature and elevated CO2. Compared with the control,high temperature and elevated CO2 led to a remarkable increase in values of the photosynthetic rate,Rubisco activity and Rubisco activase activity. ②Rubisco activase activity had an effect on photosynthetic rate by adjusting Rubisco activity. ③Rubiscoactivase activity and intercellular CO2 concentration were increased by high temperature and elevated CO2,thus photosynthetic rate was improved.
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  • Analysis of Function of α-mannosidase Gene in Promoting Melon Fruit Ripening by Transient Expression
  • USUKHJARGAL Dalaikhuu,HAO Jin-feng*,ZHANG Li-quan,ZHAO Ai-qi,and HASI Agula
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1601-1608.
  • Abstract ( 626 ) HTML ( 1129 ) PDF (652KB) ( 1129 )    
  • Transient expression system was used to analyze the function of α-mannosidase gene during melon fruit ripening. The full-length α-mannosidase gene was cloned into overexpression vector pPZP221,and two interfering sequences against α-mannosidase gene were constructed into RNAi vector pART27 respectively. These vectors were then transformed into Agrobacterium GV3101 and injected into mature green fruits of melon respectively.The majority of the phenotype related to ripening appeared in the fruit pedicle when the bacterial concentration is OD600 = 1.2. Analysis of α-mannosidase activity showed that the enzyme activity in the tissue transformed by overexpression vector was higher than the non-injected tissue,and it was lower in the tissue transformed by RNAi vectors. The expression levels ofthe α-Man gene and six genes related to fruit ripening were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the mRNA level of the α-Man gene in the tissue transformed by overexpression vector was elevated by 1.2 times compared with the non-injected tissue,furthermore the steady-state mRNA levels of the six genes related to ripening also significantly increased. The expression levels of the α-Man gene in the tissue transformed by pART-Man1 and pART-Man2 were reduced about 47% and 37% respectively in comparison to the non-injected tissue,and those of the genes related to ripening were decreased. Our results indicated that the α-mannosidase gene may promote fruit ripening in melon.
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  • Construction of One Mutant Library and Research on Phenotypic Variation of M2 Population Leaves in Chinese Cabbage
  • LU Yin,LIU Meng-yang,ZHAO Jian-jun,WANG Yan-hua,LUO Shuang-xia,XUAN Shu-xin,DAI Shuang-yan,WANG Chao-shuo,and SHEN Shu-xing*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1609-1619.
  • Abstract ( 631 ) HTML ( 3195 ) PDF (713KB) ( 3195 )    
  • Seeds of the Chinese cabbage inbred line‘A03’were treated by EMS with different concentrations in this study. The suitable EMS concentration for seed mutagenesis was determined as 0.4% by studying the germination rate,survival rate,fertility of M1 plants and survival rate of M2 individuals. By three ways of one time seeds treatment with EMS,two times of seeds treatment with EMS,and buds treatment with EMS combined with microspore culture,the Chinese cabbage mutant library contained 4 253 M1 families and their selfing seeds of M2 was constructed. For M2 individuals in the mutant library,leaf phenotypic traits of 6 404 seedlings at seedling stage and 7 756 plants at rosette stage were investigated,resulting in total mutant frequency of 37.62% and 26.33%,respectively.
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  • Establishment of Markers for Genetic Background Selection of Inbred Lines in Cabbage
  • LIU Ji-sheng,MIAO Wen-wen,WANG Dong-mei,ZHUANG Mu*,FANG Zhi-yuan,LIU Yu-mei,YANG Li-mei,ZHANG Yang-yong,and LI Zhan-sheng
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1620-1630.
  • Abstract ( 456 ) HTML ( 897 ) PDF (406KB) ( 897 )    
  • For the purpose of the rapid and accurate identification of genetic background of cabbage inbred lines and the improvement of backcross breeding efficiency,we performed PCR amplification of 36 primer pairs in 101 inbred lines from eight varieties in Brassica oleracea and analyzed their genetic background using software NTSYSpc2.11a. Results showed that all the average coefficients of intra- variety for the eight varieties are bigger than 0.55,and that of inter-variety vary from 0.45 to 0.59. The 101 B. oleracea accessions can be divided into eight groups with the coefficient of 0.62. Based on these results,23 out of 101 inbred lines were selected and 50 EST-SSR markers were added. At last,a set of 86 markers for genetic background selection was preliminarily obtained and used successfully for the backcross selection of cabbage self-compatibility.
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  • Cloning and Functional Analysis of the Key Enzyme DFR Promoters in Turnip Anthocyanin Biosynthesis
  • XU Zhi-ru,MA Jing,CUI Guo-xin,and LI Yu-hua*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1631-1641.
  • Abstract ( 570 ) HTML ( 1095 ) PDF (575KB) ( 1095 )    
  • Based on the gene sequences of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase(DFR)which were cloned from‘Tsuda’and‘Yurugi Akamaru’turnip,the 1 296 and 1 297 bp promoter fragments of BrDFR1 and BrDFR2 genes were obtained from these two turnips’ genome by genome walking method. More cis-acting elements of BrDFR1 and BrDFR2 promoters,such as TATA box,CAAT box,light responsive elements,ABRE,WUN-motif,LTR,TC-rich repeats and MeJA responsive motif,were identified using bioinformatics method. The nucleotide sequences of BrDFR1P and BrDFR2P had 15 differences. The pCAMBIA1301 plant expression vectors containing these two promoter sequence respectively were constructed with the GUS reporter gene,which were called Promoter::GUS vectors,and then transformed into tobacco through the mediation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Histochemical staining analysis showedthat the expression of GUS reporter gene could be driven by BrDFR1P and BrDFR2P. A series of 5′-end deleted fragments of these two promoters were constructed,which were fused with GUS gene and then transformed into tobacco. The stain result indicated that the deleted fragments of BrDFR1P and BrDFR2P had relatively active characteristic that could start the expression of GUS gene.
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Ornamental Plants

  • Expression Analysis of the PobZIP1 Transcription Factor Gene in Developmental Seeds from Tree Peony and Its Relationship with ABA Content
  • ZHANG Ping,WANG Shun-li,ZHU Fu-yong,XUE Jing-qi,LIU Chuan-jiao,REN Xiu-xia,and ZHANG Xiu-xin*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1642-1650.
  • Abstract ( 411 ) HTML ( 1287 ) PDF (501KB) ( 1287 )    
  • One important transcription factor gene PobZIP1 involved in ABA signaling was obtained by RT-PCR,first time in Paeonia ostii‘Fengdan’. And the abscisic acid(ABA)content in seeds of ‘Fengdan’from different developmental stages was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometric(UPLC-MS/MS)method. The full length of the coding sequence of PobZIP1 was 957 bp,encoding a protein of 318 amino acid residues with a characteristic bZIP domain in the C-terminal domain. The GenBank accession number is KJ009392. A phylogenetic analysis with otherbZIP proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that PobZIP1 belongs to the group A of bZIP transcription factors,and it was closely related to AtbZIP39/ABI5. Then another phylogenetic tree was constructed with other bZIPs from different species,the results suggested that PobZIP1 be closely related to bZIP protein in Malus × domestica. Specific tissue and organ expression analysis showed that PobZIP1 could express in leaves,stems,roots and buds,while low expression in buds. The PobZIP1 expression pattern of different developmental stages of seeds was up-down trend. The results suggested that ABA content increased rapidly in early developmental stages of seeds,then decreased and kept relatively high level. It has been hypothesized that the high level of ABA and PobZIP1 in late developmental stages could induce seeds to dormancy.
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  • Distant Hybridization Compatibility of Paeonia lutea and Morphological Analysis of Its Progenies
  • HAO Jin-li1,ZHAO Na1,SHI Yan-tong2,WANG Fu2,YUAN Tao1,*,and WANG Lian-ying1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1651-1662.
  • Abstract ( 473 ) HTML ( 1455 ) PDF (553KB) ( 1455 )    
  • Hybridization with Paeonia lutea has been conducted in ten years. Three hundred and thirty-three progenies were obtained from total 111 cross combinations with which P. lutea as crossing parents including infrasubsectional hybridization,intersubsectional hybridization and intersectional hybridization between Sect. Moutan and Sect. Paeon. Results showed that:(1)The number of seeds and seedlings of infrasubsectional hybridization in Paeonia subsect. Delavayanae are the highest,but the ornamental characters of the hybrid progenies are not optimal;In intersubsectional hybridization,generally P. lutea has better cross compatibility with species of simple flower types,and the hybrid progenies possess excellent ornamental characters;The emergence rate of intersectional hybridization is very low. (2)Observation of the pollen-stigma interaction showed that incompatible pollen cause callose reaction in pollen tube and stigma.(3)Through observation of morphological characteristics,it was found thatmorphological identification standards of intersubsectional hybridization can be established by leathery floral disc,carpel covered with hairs and widened leaf lobe.
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  • Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Gene CpLEA from Chimonanthus praecox
  • MA Jing,SUN Wen-ting,WANG Jing,SUI Shun-zhao,and LI Ming-yang*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1663-1672.
  • Abstract ( 659 ) HTML ( 1018 ) PDF (813KB) ( 1018 )    
  • CpLEA,a new late embryogenesis abundant protein(LEA)gene was identified by randomly cloning and sequencing from Chimonanthus praecox flowers cDNA library. CpLEA has an open reading frame(ORF)of 273 bp encoding a putative 91aa-polypeptide,with two introns of 35 bp and 707 bp respectively. The bioinformatics analysis showed that there were no signal peptide and trans-membrane domain existing in CpLEA protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpLEA protein can be clustered together with the other known plant group 3 LEA proteins according to its sequence characterizations. Then, the prokaryotic expression vector,which contained the ORF of CpLEA gene,was constructed and the targeted fusion protein at the molecular weight 30 kD coding by CpLEA gene was induced by IPTG. qRT-PCR demonstrated that expression of CpLEA was higher in mature seed compared to that in other tissues and was almost cannot be observed in roots. During the flowering stage,the expression of CpLEA was abundant in the early stage of the flower development and then decreased until the blooming stage and increased significantly at the scence senescence stage. The expression of CpLEA was up-regulated by ABA,cold,salt,drought and hot stresses. It can be to some extent inferred that the CpLEA gene obtained in this study plays an important role in early stage of flower development and abiotic stresses responses.
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  • The Expression and Functional Analysis of Expansin Genes During Flower Opening in Cut Rose
  • LIU Xiao-wei,JIANG Gui-mei,LIU Ji-tao,DAI Fan-wei,GAO Jun-ping,and ZHANG Chang-qing*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1673-1681.
  • Abstract ( 628 ) HTML ( 1237 ) PDF (949KB) ( 1237 )    
  • This study first investigated the different-layers of petal expansion using cut rose flowers (Rosa hybrida),and then cloned and identified three alpha-expansin genes with its characteristic conserved domains:RhEXPA5,RhEXPA6 and RhEXPA7. The results showed that outer petals had the faster expansion during the early flower opening stages,while the expression of the genes were ubiquitous in most petal layers at 1–6 flower stages,in which RhEXPA7 expression was most closely related to petal expansion. In stage 2 flowers,ethylene obviously suppressed the RhEXPA7 expression,and showed less effect on RhEXPA5 and RhEXPA6. Over-expression of RhEXPA7 enhanced root hairs density of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings under ACC treatment. RhEXPA7 over-expression also decreased ABA sensitivity and increased NaCl tolerance in seed germination of transgenic lines. Taken together,RhEXPA7 expression was closely related to petal expansion and involved in ethylene signaling response,and over-expression of RhEXPA7 resulted in enhanced stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.
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Research Notes

  • Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two Ubiquitin-protein Ligase RING-H2 Finger Genes from Pommelos[Citrus grandis(L.)Osbeck]
  • JIN Xiao-qin,KANG Zhen,LIU Wei-na,PAN Yong-juan,WANG Li-huan,GUO Wei-dong,and YANG Li*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1689-1698.
  • Abstract ( 626 ) HTML ( 1664 ) PDF (933KB) ( 1664 )    
  • RING(Real Interesting New Gene)finger proteins specify the substrates in the 26S ubiquitin-proteasome pathway,and play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However,the sequences,expression characteristics and physiological functions of RING finger genes in pommelo are little known. In this study,two RING finger(CgRHF1 and CgRHF2)cDNA fragments were isolated from Red-fleshed and Guanxi pommelo. The results showed that two CgRHFs were belonged to RING-H2 finger subfamilies,and there is no DNA base difference in the sequences of two cultivars. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that gene expression of CgRHF1 is significantly higher than CgRHF2,especially in the stems,leaves and flowers of red-fleshed pommelo. The expression levels of CgRHF2 were relatively low in the tissues and fruit development of two pommelo cultivars,but dramatically increased at the fruit mature stage. This study has implied that CgRHF1 and CgRHF2 may play different roles in the tissues and fruit development of Red-fleshed and Guanxi pommelo,and can not functionally complement.
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  • Establishment and Application of Specific InDel Markers on Different Linkage Groups of Cabbage Compared with Chinese Cabbage
  • ZHU Dong-xu1,WANG Yan-hua1,ZHAO Jian-jun1,LIU Bo2,LI Xiao-feng1,XUAN Shu-xin1,and SHEN Shu-xing1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1699-1700.
  • Abstract ( 475 ) HTML ( 800 ) PDF (799KB) ( 800 )    
  • A total of 458 InDel markers derived from 9 linkage groups of cabbage were screened on four cabbage and four Chinese cabbage varieties by PCR amplification. The results showed that 286 InDel markers were specific on cabbage compared with Chinese cabbage,31 of them on linkage group C01,45 of them on linkage group C02,54 of them on linkage group C03,24 of them on linkage group C04,22 of them on linkage group C05,20 of them on linkage group C06,32 of them on linkage group C07,34 of them on linkage group C08,and 24 of them on linkage group C09. The inbred progeny of one Chinese cabbage-cabbage translocation line developed by our laboratory was identified preliminarily by specific InDel markers on linkage group C02. The physical location of exogenous cabbage chromosome fragment was in the 689 764 bp region from the 18 096 729 bp to 18 786 494 bp.
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  • The Anthocyanin Metabolic Profiling Analysis of Three Purple Brassica rapa Vegetables
  • GUO Ning,ZHENG Shu-ning,WU Jian,CHENG Feng,LIANG Jian-li,and WANG Xiao-wu*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1707-1715.
  • Abstract ( 590 ) HTML ( 1556 ) PDF (387KB) ( 1556 )    
  • The purple color of purple flowering Chinese cabbage(Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. purpurea Baile.)as well as purple types of turnip(Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera Metzg.)and pakchoi [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis(L.)Makino] is due to anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the distribution and metabolic profiling of anthocyanins in the leaves of these vegetables,tissue sections of leaves were observed,as well as the analytical method combining two LC–MS techniques,UFLC-UV-Q-Trap-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS,were performed for the identification of anthocyanins. The anthocyanin pigments were mainly accumulated in the petiole epidermis of purple flowering Chinese cabbage and purple turnip,while in the upper epidermis of blades of purple pakchoi. In total,23 anthocyanins were detected and identified in the leaves of these vegetales. Seventeen different acylated cyanidin 3-di/triglucoside-5-glucosides were detected and identified in purple flowering Chinese cabbage and purple pakchoi. Six anthocyanins in purple turnip were identified as different acylated pelargonidin 3-diglucoside-5-glucosides. Based on these results the metabolic profiling of anthocyanins was extensively characterized in these three purple Brassica rapa vegetables.
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  • Morpho-histological Study of Somatic Embryo-like Structures and Somatic Embryos in Lily
  • WU Ze1,ZHONG Xiong-hui1,CAO Xing2,GONG Ben-he1,CHENG Yun-he1,CHEN Quan-quan1,and YI Ming-fang1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1716-1722.
  • Abstract ( 444 ) HTML ( 1034 ) PDF (411KB) ( 1034 )    
  • Petioles of lily were used as explants to induce primary nodular callus. Then,somatic embryo-like structures were induced from the primary nodular callus and somatic embryos were induced from the proliferated nodular callus,a systematic morpho-histological study was conducted for showing the differences of the two regenerated structures by microscope observation and paraffin section analysis. The somatic embryo-like structures were globular to oval-shaped or similar to shoots,and consisted of parenchymatous cells. Histological observations indicated their connection with the maternal tissue by evident vascular strands and the existence of multiple vascular centers during morphogenesis. These structures closely resembled somatic embryos in appearance. Somatic embryos derived from the newly embryonic callus situated at the surface of the proliferated nodular callus,and the early-stage somaticembryos were formed by embryonic cells. Somatic embryo grew into a complete plantlet after passing through globular,oval and cotyledonary-shaped stages. Histological observations did not reveal any vascular connections with the maternal tissue during the whole development process. Moreover,the shoot pole and root pole of them appeared simultaneously,their connection was built up through a single vascular bundle. Therefore,even much similar appearance between the two regenerated structures,their development manners and organizational structures totally differ.
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  • Phenotypic Diversity of Rosa beggeriana Populations in Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang
  • LI Shi-chao1,YANG Shu-hua1,*,LIU Hai-xing1,GUO Ning1,FU Li2,and GE Hong1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1723-1730.
  • Abstract ( 380 ) HTML ( 1098 ) PDF (238KB) ( 1098 )    
  • Five populations of Rosa beggeriana in Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang were selected to analyze the phenotypic diversity based on 11 phenotypic traits from leaves,fruits and seeds. The results showed there were highly significant differences in phenotypic traits among and within populations. The mean phenotypic differentiation coefficient(VST)among populations was 35.76%,less than that of within populations(64.24%),which indicated that the phenotypic variation mainly occurred within populations. The average variation coefficient(CV)of phenotype traits with 14.78% showed that there was low variation of phenotypic traits in Rosa beggeriana populations. Traits on fruits and seeds were the main factors account for phenotypic variations. Correlation analysis showed that there were the correlations between vegetative and reproductive traits. Length of fruit showed a significant positive correlation with the longitude,and the numbers of seeds per fruit showed a highly significant negative correlation with the altitude. The cluster analysis on the phenotypic traits showed 5 populations were divided into 4 groups,which the populations did not strictly classify according to the geography distance.
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Technologies and Methods

  • Selection of Appropriate Reference Genes in Solanum aculeatissimum for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies Under Different Experimental Conditions
  • ZHOU Xiao-hui,LIU Jun,and ZHUANG Yong*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1731-1738.
  • Abstract ( 483 ) HTML ( 1611 ) PDF (319KB) ( 1611 )    
  • The present study aimed to select stable and optimal reference genes for gene expression analysis in Solanum aculeatissimum. A total of seven traditional reference genes including GAPDHACTIN18sRNAUBQTUAEF1 and CYP were screened and compared by the real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA levels of these candidate genes were evaluated under different experimental conditions,including different tissues,different hormone treatments,abiotic and biotic stress using three common statistical softwares,GeNorm,NormFinder and RefFinder. The data showed that TUA and 18sRNA were the most stable genes in different tissues. 18sRNA and ACTIN showed high stability in different hormone treatments sample pool. EF1 and GAPDH were the most stably expressed reference genes under salt and drought stress while TUA and EF1 exhibited the most stable expression across all of the tested S. aculeatissimum samples. CYP and ACTIN exhibited the least stable expression under most of the experimental conditions which are not recommended.
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New Cultivars

  • A New Middle-late Ripening Apple Cultivar‘Huaping’
  • ZHANG Li-yi,KANG Guo-dong*,ZHANG Cai-xia,WANG Qiang,YANG Ling,TIAN Yi,and CONG Pei-hua*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1739-1740.
  • Abstract ( 636 ) HTML ( 1116 ) PDF (157KB) ( 1116 )    
  • ‘Huaping’is a new middle-late maturing apple cultivar which bred from‘Golden Delicious’בHui’. Its average fruits weight is 177 g,with beautiful appearance,small fruit dots and thick wax layer. The flesh is crisp and juicy,and flavor is sweet with moderate tart. Its firmness,soluble solids content,total sugar,titrtable acid and vitamin C is 7.1 kg ? cm-2,12.84%,9.60%,0.64% and 0.056 mg ? g-1,respectively. In Liaoning western area,it blooms on early May and its fruit ripens on late September,the fruit developing period is about 140 days. It is tolerant of cold weather and resistant to branch ring rod disease. It is suitable to be planted in‘Golden Delicious’growing area.
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  • A New Early Maturing Grape Cultivar‘Fengzao’
  • LI Xiu-zhen,LI Xue-qiang,GUO Da-long,ZHANG Guo-hai*,and MA Hui-li
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1741-1742.
  • Abstract ( 669 ) HTML ( 1060 ) PDF (598KB) ( 1060 )    
  • The new grape cultivar‘Fengzao’is selected from‘Kyoho’through bud mutation. The average weight of an ear is around 500 g. The grain which peel is purplish red and round,weighting 9.0–12.0 g and containing total soluble solids of 15.0%. It ripens at the beginning of the July and the growth period is about 47 days. The new cultivar has strong resistance and is well suited for protected cultivation and open field cultivation.
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  • A New Sour Cherry Cultivar‘Aode’
  • CAI Yu-liang1,*,WANG Yu1,QIU Rong2,FENG Ying1,ZHANG Xue1,WAN Tian1,and HE Heng-liu1
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1743-1744.
  • Abstract ( 739 ) HTML ( 601 ) PDF (166KB) ( 601 )    
  • ‘Aode’is a new sour cherry cultivar derived from resources. The average fruit weight is 5.5 g,total sugar content and total acid content are 10.36% and 1.45% respectively. Soluble protein content is 1.40%,and the juice processing rate of fruit is 85.2%.‘Aode’is a dwarfing varity with characteristics of drought and salt resistance. The tree leaf is less affected by disease and insect comparing with sweet cherry. The fruit of‘Aode’is resistant to spliting problem. The root systerm of the varity is strong and solid with less wind damage.‘Aode’has been cultivated in Shaanxi,Gansu,Shanxi,Henan and Shandong Province etc.
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  • A New Chestnut Cultivar‘Liangxiang 1’
  • LAN Yan-ping1,*,LIU Guo-bin1,LAN Wei-zong1,WANG Le-le1,CAO Qing-chang1,CAO Jun1,WANG Qiao2,LI Min2,ZHOU Lian-di1,and ZHU Nuan-lin2
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1745-1746.
  • Abstract ( 403 ) HTML ( 697 ) PDF (154KB) ( 697 )    
  • ‘Liangxiang 1’is a new elite cultivar selected from Chinese chestnut natural population growing in Fangshan area which belongs to Taihang Mount,with superior qualities such as early fruiting,high and stable yield,and especially suitable for stir-frying. The bur is oval in sharp,in which contains 2.7 nuts equally. Each nut is 8.2 g to 11.2 g in weight,with brown and smooth skin and milk white kernel,which is sweet and sticky when stir fried. The content of water,total sugar,starch,crude fiber,fats and protein in the fresh are 46.2%,12.3%,47.5%,1.7%,0.9% and 4.1% individually.‘Liangxiang 1’has the fruit growth period of 100 d,which can be harvested in middle-September.
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  • A New Early-maturing Cabbage Hybrid‘Huifeng 8’
  • HOU Gang,WU Yong-hui*,and WANG Cui-xian
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1747-1748.
  • Abstract ( 437 ) HTML ( 716 ) PDF (167KB) ( 716 )    
  • ‘Huifeng 8’is a new hybrid of cabbage which is developed from two self-incompatible lines of‘9203-4-3-11’and‘9908-1-10’. It is early maturing,60–63 days from planting to harvest. It grows vigorously,and has dark green external leaves,with moderate wax. Its expansion is 48–52 cm. And it has tender green round head,which is compact and tolerant to head splitting. The leaf head is about 16 cm in diameter,about 16 cm in height,with a short core of 6.3 cm in length. The cabbage is crisp and tender,with sweet flavor and high quality. The single head mass is 1.3–1.5 kg and the yield is 60.0–67.5 t ? hm-2. It is resistant to virus(TuMV)and bolting-tolerance. It is suitable for Northern China to grow in spring,also can be used for early-mature autumn cabbage growing.
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  • A New Clivia miniata Cultivar‘Yangjun 2’
  • BAO Jian-zhong*,LI Feng-tong,LIU Chun-gui,SUN Ye,MA Hui,ZHANG Tian,and CHEN Xiu-lan
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2014, 41(8): 1753-1754.
  • Abstract ( 390 ) HTML ( 730 ) PDF (207KB) ( 730 )    
  • ‘Yangjun 2’is bred through the selection from seedlings of the self-crossed and 60Co-γ rays irradiated seeds of Clivia miniata‘Foguang’. It has a good application prospect due to many excellent traits such as compact plant architecture,neat and symmetric leaves,thick leaf mesophyll,clear leaf vein,coordinate ratio of leaf length and width,earlier flowering date,salmon pink flower color,high ornamental value,strong adaptability,mid-disease resistance and so on.
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