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2018, Vol.45, No.4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

Research Papers

  • Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of GA2oxGA3ox and GA20ox in Apple
  • DONG Feng,FAN Sheng,MA Xiaolong,MENG Yuan,ZUO Xiya,LIU Xiaojie,LI Ke,LIU Zhen,HAN Mingyu,and ZHANG Dong*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 613-626. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0452
  • Abstract ( 423 ) HTML ( 1088 ) PDF (2969KB) ( 1088 )    
  • In this study,we analyzed the gene structure,chemical characterizations,chromosome locations,evolutionary relationship,promoter cis-acting element,tissue specific expression with online database. Additionally,the expression levels of GA2oxGA3ox and GA20ox werealso investigatedduring flower induction by qRT-PCR. A total of 41 gibberellin oxidase genes were identified from the apple genome,including 20 GA2ox,14 GA3ox,and 7 GA20ox. They were all distributed on all chromosomes except chromosome 4. The molecular weight is ranged from 13.15 to 60.17 kD,and the isoelectric point is ranged from 5.50 to 9.81. The 41 gibberellin oxidase genes were clustered into five subfamilies. Gene structure and conserved domain analysis showed that the number of exons of the 41 gibberellin oxidase genes were ranged from 1 to 5,and most genes shared conserved motifs 1,5,6,7,and 10. Further,tissue specific analysis by online database showed that the three types of genes were differentially expressed in different varieties and tissues,and their expression levels were relatively high in flowers and fruits. Eight candidate genes were selected for qRT-PCR through the transcriptome data. The expression of GA20ox was down-regulated,while GA2ox was increased at different time after flowering in GA3 treatment,the expression of GA3ox showed different trends in different stages.

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  • Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of CRF Family Gene During Adventitious Root Development in Apple
  • LI Ke,LIU Zhen,LEI Chao,ZUO Chaoran,DONG Feng,MENG Yuan,MAO Jiangping,HAN Mingyu,and ZHANG Dong*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 627-640. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0443
  • Abstract ( 351 ) HTML ( 767 ) PDF (1894KB) ( 767 )    
  • In the current study,a total of 11 cytokinin response factor genes(CRF)were identified from the apple genome by bioinformatics. Genes were named MdCRF1–MdCRF11 by the position of the gene in the chromosome. Additionally,this study systematically analyzed its physical and chemical characteristics,gene structures,evolutionary relationships and promoter elements. MdCRF proteins contained 137–435 amino acids and the isoelectric points is from 4.26 to 9.68. Results of exon-intron structure analysis showed that the MdCRF1 contained 2 exons and 1 intron;MdCRF11 contained 3 exons and 2 introns;other genes only have exons and without introns. Conservative base sequence analysis showed that 5–9 conserved motifs existed in the MdCRF proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MdCRF family genes could be classified into three subgroups(G1,G2 and G3)according to its homology. In addition,the number of the members of each subgroup were approximately equal. Tissue-specific expressions indicated that 11 MdCRF had significantly different expression patterns in different genotypes,as well as different tissues. The materials were‘T337’apple rootstock,qPCR confirmed most of genes were highly expressed in root,stem and callus. At the same time the expression of these genes were down-regulated by rooting treatment. Additionally,we systematically analyzed the connection network of MdCRF proteins and predicted the potential link between genes. The results showed that MdCRF8,MdCRF10 and MdCRF11 might be involved in regulating adventitious root development in apple rootstock.

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  • Analysis of the Complete Genome of Apple stem grooving virus Isolate Jilin-shaguo
  • LI Zhengnan,ZHANG Shuangna,ZHANG Zunping,FAN Xudong,REN Fang,HU Guojun,and DONG Yafeng*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 641-649. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0578
  • Abstract ( 264 ) HTML ( 575 ) PDF (1426KB) ( 575 )    
  • Using RT-PCR and RACE techniques,the complete genome of Apple stem grooving virus(ASGV)isolate Jilin-shaguo(JLSG)was amplified. The genome of ASGV-JLSG has 6 496 nucleotides,encoding two overlapping open reading frames(ORFs). The ORF1(position 37–6 354 nt)encodes a 241 kD polyprotein,including domains of a methyltransferase,a papain-like-protease,a nucleotide triphosphate-binding helicase,a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase,and a coat protein. ORF2(4 788– 5 750 nt)encodes a movement protein. The nucleotide identity of complete genome between ASGV-JLSG and the 29 ASGV isolates published in GenBank ranged from 79.20% to 86.60%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the concerned ASGV isolates can be grouped into 2 clusters,but no geographic or host association among one another. Recombination analysis suggested that ASGV-JLSG was the recombinant of ASGV-HH(JN701424)and CTLV-MTH(KC588948). This was the first reported complete genome of ASGV in Northeast China.

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  • The Characteristics of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in Relation to the Cold Injury of Vitis amurensis‘Shuangfeng’and‘Zuoyouhong’
  • ZHAO Ying,WANG Zhenxing,XU Peilei,YANG Yiming,LIU Yingxue,LIU Haishuang,and AI Jun*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 650-658. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0459
  • Abstract ( 340 ) HTML ( 630 ) PDF (1148KB) ( 630 )    
  • The parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence and reactive oxygen metabolism were measured in two different cold-tolerant amur grape cultivars of‘Shuangfeng’(intraspecific hybridization)and‘Zuoyouhong’(interspecific hybridization). The chlorophyll content,Chl.a/b and Fv/Fm values of the two cultivars were significantly decreased,while the value of 1–qp and MDA content increased significantly with the temperature decreasing gradually. Stable NPQ value and the higher SOD and APX activities in‘Shuangfeng’leaf showed the lower damage degree than‘Zuoyouhong’. The results suggested that the leaf chlorophyll decomposition,electron transfer blocked of PSⅡand excitation energy increased under the low temperature stress eventually resulted in the lipid peroxidation of chloroplast membrane. Thermal dissipation and antioxidant enzymes were helpful to reduce the damage of reactive oxygen to PSⅡ. Therefore,the differences in NPQ and the activities of SOD and APX might be the important aspects that caused the genotype differences in cold injury.

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  • Abnormal Meiosis Behaviors of Triploid and Tetraploid Chinese Jujube
  • Lü Ye1,2,3,XUE Zhihui1,WU Gai’e1,LIU Ping1,2,*,and LIU Mengjun1,2,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 659-668. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0469
  • Abstract ( 257 ) HTML ( 777 ) PDF (5149KB) ( 777 )    
  • The natural triploid Chinese jujube‘Zanhuang Dazao’(2n = 3x = 36)and artificial autotetraploid ‘Chenguang’(2n = 4x = 48)were used to study the chromosome behaviors,especially abnormal meiosis,of pollen mother cells(PMCs). Conventional pressed slice method was used to observe the meiosis of PMCs under Olympus light microscope. Abnormal phenomenon was observed in each stage of meiosis. Univalents,bivalents,trivalents and quadrivalents appeared while two nucleoli were observed at diakinesis in both‘Zanhuang Dazao’and‘Chenguang’. Some chromosomes were found not being arranged at metaphase plate at metaphaseⅠand metaphaseⅡfollowed by lagged chromosomes and chromosome bridges appeared at anaphaseⅠand anaphaseⅡ. Parallel and tripolar spindles were observed besides normal perpendicular spindles at metaphase Ⅱ. Dyads,triads and tetrads with or without micronucleus appeared at tetrad stage. Polyads were only observed in‘Zanhuang Dazao’at tetrad stage and abnoraml cytokinesis at anaphaseⅠand Ⅱ were only detected in‘Chenguang’. Abnormal meiosis behavior led to gamete diversity,pollen deformity and low pollen fertility in polyploid Chinese jujube.‘Zanhuang Dazao’was preliminarily inferred to be an autopolyploid,and its meiosis behavior is more abnormal than those of autotetraploid‘Chenguang’.

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  • Role of Exogenous Spermidine in Keeping On-tree Ponkan Fruits Fresh and Its Effect on Formation of Abscission Zone
  • DENG Xiaodong1,JIAO Guozhu2,LIU Cong1,WEI Tonglu1,GUO Dayong1,XIE Zongzhou1,*,and LIU Jihong1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 669-677. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0448
  • Abstract ( 220 ) HTML ( 577 ) PDF (3784KB) ( 577 )    
  • On-tree storage is an effective strategy to keep citrus fruits fresh on tree,which can prolong harvesting season and relieve the pressure of fruit sale in a limited period. However,little knowledge is available for implementation of on-tree storage of ponkan fruits. In the present study,exogenous spermidine(Spd)was supplied to‘New Line 3’ponkan(Citrus reticulata)to investigate the role of Spd in lessening fruit dropping during overwinter on-tree storage and to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that application of 1 mmol · L-1 Spd had negligible effects on influencing fruit quality,while noticeably decreased the rate of fruit dropping. Meanwhile,exogenous supply of Spd suppressed ROS production in the fruit abscission zone,concurrent with significant reduction of the activities and expression levels of cellulase(CX),polygalacturonase(PG)and pectin esterase(PME),three key enzymes associated with cell wall degradation. This leads to retardation of cell wall degradation and impairment of formation of abscission zone. Taken together,our data revealed that exogenous application of Spd could delay the formation of abscission zones in the fruits,allowing it to be used possibly for keeping ponkan on-tree fruits fresh overwinter.

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  • Function Analysis of SlARF12 Gene During Fruit Development in Tomato
  • LIU Songyu,YAN Yanqiu,FENG Qiushuo,and LU Gang*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 678-690. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0769
  • Abstract ( 418 ) HTML ( 879 ) PDF (2142KB) ( 879 )    
  • In order to explore the molecular mechanism by which auxin signal transduction mediates fruit set and development,we used tomato variety‘Micro-Tom’to evaluate the biological function of an auxin responsive factor,SlARF12(HM565127.1),in fruit development. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the SlARF12 mRNA levels gradually decreased before the flower was fully open,however,it became significantly higher in self-pollinated ovaries than that in emasculated and unpollinated ones. Inhibition of SlARF12 by RNA interference(RNAi)method had no significant influence on tomato vegetative growth and flower development,but the RNAi fruits in transgenic plants were significantly larger and heavier than those in wild-type plants and empty vector transgenic lines. In addition,no parthenocarpic fruit was developed after artificial emasculation before anthesis. The semi-thin section was performed to compare cytological characteristics in early fruits between RNAi and wild-type plants. The fruit pericap cells of transgenic lines were significantly larger than those of wild-type fruits,but the number of pericap cell layers of transgenic fruit was similar to that of the control fruit. Gene expression analysis showed that the mRNA levels of cell differentiation genes including CycB1.1 and CDKB2.1 in the ovary and young fruit of SlARF12 RNAi transgenic plants decreased when compared with the wild-type fruits,but the expression level of cell expansion gene such as SlPEC was significantly higher than that of the control fruit. Therefore,the inhibition of the SlARF12 expression level would up-regulate the expression levels of cell expansion genes,which might enhance the ability of fruit expansion and result in larger fruits of transgenic plants. The data suggest that SlARF12 can negatively regulate the fruit expansion process in tomato but is not required for fruit initiation,revealing the auxin can finely regulate fruit development at various stages through ARF signal conduction pathway.

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  • Optimization of Virus-induced Gene Silencing System and Function Identification of SmIAA19 Gene in Eggplant
  • QI Dongxia1,*,ZHANG Ying1,*,ZHAO Zhen1,ZHANG Weiwei1,CHEN Yuhui1,LIAN Yong1,TIAN Shibing2,and LIU Fuzhong1,**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 691-701. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0643
  • Abstract ( 279 ) HTML ( 798 ) PDF (1993KB) ( 798 )    
  • Virus-induced gene silencing(VIGS)system is a very useful tool for evaluating gene function and molecular mechanism. Many factors,such as vector,viral proliferation and systemic movement throughout the plant,affect the efficiency of VIGS. In order to improve the VIGS silence efficiency in eggplant(Solanum melongena L.),three parameters(environment temperature,seedling age and gene fragment size)were optimized. The results showed that the silencing efficiency was higher in temperature controlled greenhouse[(25 ± 3)℃,daytime and(20 ± 2)℃,night]than in room temperature greenhouse. After inoculation of the cotyledons of eggplant,the plants had obvious silence symptom,but there was no obvious silence effect when the six-week-old true leaves were inoculated. The silence frequencies of the gene fragments 597 bp,442 bp and 205 bp were 56.67%,62.5% and 68.75% respectively,indicating that about 200 bp might be the most suitable fragment size for VIGS. Then,the function of SmIAA19 from eggplant IAA family genes was evaluated using this VIGS system. The SmIAA19 silence plants presented obvious phenotypic symptoms after inoculation for 4 weeks. The transcript levels of SmIAA19 and auxin content in the SmIAA19 silenced plants were significantly reduced compared to the control. It showed that SmIAA19 was an auxin metabolic related gene in eggplant,and TRV-VIGS system was a reliable method for the function identification of eggplant gene.

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  • Characterization of Emitted Volatiles and Key Genes in Lilium longiflorum × Asiatic
  • ZHANG Yiying*,LI Wenqi*,and Lü Yingmin**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 702-716. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0313
  • Abstract ( 593 ) HTML ( 692 ) PDF (2129KB) ( 692 )    
  • Using headspace solid–phase microextraction(HS–SPME),gas chromatography–mass spectrometry(GC–MS)and quantitative real-time PCR techniques,we analyzed the biochemical and genetic characterization of the metabolic pathway on fragrance emission of Lilium longiflorum × Asiatic hybrids(LA). Five interspecific Lilium hybrids cultivars were collected to analyze the differences in scent emissions including Lilium longiflorum × Asiatic hybrids,Longiflorum hybrids,Asiatic hybrids and Oriential hybrids × Trumpet hybrids. These five cultivars were divided into three levels:non-scented,light-scented,and strong-scented. Three key genes of the mevalonic acid(MVA)pathway were isolated from LA hybrids by the homology cloning. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the release of floral scent components in five lily hybrids with different levels of fragrance,and the emitted regulation of terpene compounds was consistent with the degree of perceptible fragrance. The aroma content of‘Freya’reached the maximum in the early flowering period,and the aroma content of tepal was the highest among the four floral tissues. The expression patterns of enzyme genes(HMGR,MVD,FPS and TPS)in the MVA pathway were different in different interspecific lily cultivars. The expression level of TPS was consistent with the emitted regulation of terpene compounds on the flowering of‘Freya’,which indicated that TPS played a pivotal role in the volatilization of terpene compounds. We obtained a terpene synthase gene named as LlaTPS in LA hybrids‘Freya’,which was the final step in the MVA pathway. The full length of the cDNA was 1 799 bp,with an open reading frame of 1 764 bp,encoding a total of 587 amino acids. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that LlaTPS was the closest to the monoterpene synthase of Lilium hybrid cultivar‘Siberia’,and belonged to TPSb subfamily. LlaFPPS was cloned from LA hybrids‘Freya’,which can catalyze farnesyl diphosphate(FPP)as the precursor for sesquiterpene. The full length of the cDNA was 1 072 bp,with an open reading frame of 1 056 bp,encoding a total of 351 amino acids. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that LlaFPPS encoding protein had a close relationship with monocotyledons plant FPPS protein,and far more distant from leguminous plants. LlaMVD(KX034060)was isolated from LA hybrids‘Freya’,which was the key gene in the MVA pathway. The full length of the cDNA was 1 439 bp,with an open reading frame of 1 275 bp,encoding a total of 424 amino acids. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Lilium MVD is closely related to that of Elaeis guineensis and Oryza brachyantha.

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  • Genetic Variation and QTL Mapping for Cold Tolerance of Ray Florets in an F1 Population of Chrysanthemum morifolium
  • MA Jie,XU Tingting,SU Jiangshuo,YANG Xincheng,FANG Weimin,CHEN Fadi,and ZHANG Fei*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 717-724. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0375
  • Abstract ( 288 ) HTML ( 619 ) PDF (1665KB) ( 619 )    
  • In the present study,the relative electric conductivity and logistic equation were used to determine the low semi-lethal temperature(LT50)of ray floret in a segregating chrysanthemum‘Nannong Xuefeng’בMonalisa White’F1 population at full flowering stage,with the intention of investigating genetic variation and QTL for ray florets’cold tolerance. The results showed that LT50 ranged between–8.92 and 1.31 ℃ and distributed normally with a coefficient of variation of 43.60%,indicative of the quantitative nature;in addition,partial maternal inheritance to some extent and transgressive segregations were observed for the cold tolerance of ray florets in the F1 population. Major gene plus polygene inheritance model analysis figured out no major gene for the ray florets’cold tolerance. QTL analysis by the method of composite interval mapping identified six QTLs for ray florets’cold tolerance,harboring on the linkage group X2 and X4 of‘Nannong Xuefeng’map and M2,M11,and M33 of‘Monolisa White’map,with a LOD value of 2.61–3.29. The additive effect of the six QTLs varied in a range of–1.67–1.78 ℃,and the individually explained phenotypic variation ranged from 6.01% to 9.94%,therefore the identified QTLs should be minor genes,confirming the results of major gene plus polygene inheritance model analysis.

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Research Notes

  • Effects of Dazomet and Chloropicrin on the Soil Nematode Communities and Nutrient Content of Replanted Strawberry
  • YANG Yeqing1,FAN Linjuan1,LIU Qizhi1,*,LI Weihua1,and SONG Zhaoxin2
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 725-733. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0417
  • Abstract ( 213 ) HTML ( 694 ) PDF (973KB) ( 694 )    
  • To explore the positive and negative effects of dazomet and chloropicrin on the replanted soil,the abundance of total nematode,community composition,biodiversity and ecological indices,and soil nutrient were used as the main evaluating indices in the greenhouse of strawberry. Based on those above indices and the Redundancy analysis(RDA),our study will provide references for the replanted soil of scientific management. Our result showed that the total number of nematode in replanted soil declined by 83.24% and 85.48% after applying dazomet and chloropicrin,respectively. But soil diversity index(H’)and maturity index(MI)had no significant change. The content of soil organic matter,available phosphorus and available potassium was also significantly reduced(68.33% and 50.00%,67.93% and 71.55%,50.36% and 56.20%,respectively)after the application of dazomet and chloropicrin. In addition,the value of pH rose to 7.69 and 7.68,respectively(the value of pH in the control soil was 7.27). RDA analysis indicated that dazomet and chloropicrin had significantly positive correlations with Rhabditis,Aphelenchus nematodes,soil organic matter,available phosphorus,and available potassium. The result revealed that the number of harmful nematodes of Aphelenchus was reduced by 41.47% and 29.77%,and the number of beneficial nematodes of Rhabditis was significantly dropped about 10% under treatment of dazomet and chloropicrin,respectively. The main reason might be that,the two fumigants could strongly reduce the content of soil nutrient. It was suggested that dazomet and chloropicrin not only could effectively reduce the number of harmful nematodes,but also had negative effect on the beneficial nematodes and soil nutrient. In conclusion,the inhibition effect of dazomet on harmful nematodes was greater than chloropicrin,and the number of Eucephalobus belonging to bacterivores increased by 42.03% with dazomet treatment at the same time. Therefore,the negative effect of chloropicrin was greater and should be used carefully in production.

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  • Effects of Umbelliferone Treatment on Quality and Disease Resistance to Penicillium expansum in Kiwifruit During Storage
  • ZHENG Jian1,JIANG Zhenye1,QI Wenye1,PAN Jie1,ZHENG Xiaolin1,*,and LI Boqiang2,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 734-742. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0588
  • Abstract ( 247 ) HTML ( 539 ) PDF (765KB) ( 539 )    
  • The effects of umbelliferone on controlling Penicillium expansum growth(in vitro)and on regulating the quality and disease resistance to P. expansum in kiwifruit(Actinidia deliciosa‘Bruno’)were investigated. The results showed that,as compared with control,the spore germination and colony diameter of P. expansum were significantly reduced on potato dextrose broth(PDB)or potato dextrose agar(PDA)containing 0.5 or 1.0 mg · mL-1 umbelliferone. Moreover,0.5 mg · mL-1 umbelliferone treatment slowed the decreases in titratable acid(TA)and vitamin C content,and the increase in soluble solid content(SSC),and reduced the natural decay incidence of kiwifruit during storage. Also,0.5 mg · mL-1 umbelliferone treatment significantly inhibited the progress of rot and patulin accumulation caused by P. expansum,and induced increases in the activities of chitinase(CHT),β-1,3-glucanase(GLU),phenylalanine ammonialyase(PAL),and up-regulated the expression of these defense-related enzymes in kiwifruit after inoculation of P. expansum suspension. Thus,it was suggested that the umbelliferone treatment could benefit the fruit quality and improved the disease resistance in kiwifruit against P. expansum during postharvest.

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  • The Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 on Three Model Plants
  • LI Weiming,CHEN Jingjing,DUAN Yajie,PANG Zhencai,SUN dequan,HU Yulin,HU Huigang*,and XIE Jianghui*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 743-752. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0483
  • Abstract ( 295 ) HTML ( 781 ) PDF (3942KB) ( 781 )    
  • Nowdays,Fusarium wilt greatly threatens the banana industry world wide. Genetic improvement is a promising method for the breeding of disease resistant cultivars. However,currently,this method is limited due to the lack of resistant genetic resources. At present,the low efficiency of generation of transgenic banana plants and the lack of knowledge of molecular biology make it difficult to characterize defense-related genes in large-scale. A good strategy is to refer the advance tools and progresses applied and achieved in the studies of model plants. Therefore,in this study,three model plant species,i.e.,Arabidopsis thaliana,tobacco and tomato,each with several popular ecotypes,were applied to test their susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. cubense tropical race 4(FocTR4). Our results demonstrated that,after inoculated with FocTR4,typical disease symptoms only could be observed on the tomato Money Maker. Moreover,FocTR4 could be detected and re-isolated from the discolour tissue of pseudostem near the roots of infected tomato plants,which confirmed that the whole pathogenicity was in conformity with the Koch’s Rule. A regeneration system with high efficiency was also developed for producing adventitious shoots from cotyledon of Money Maker. These results therefore lay the foundation for rapid screening genes with resistance to Fusarium wilt,via using a model plant as material.

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  • Development of Retrotransposon-based Insertion Polymorphism Molecular Marker and Cultivar Identification of Blueberry
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 753-763. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0563
  • Abstract ( 212 ) HTML ( 842 ) PDF (726KB) ( 842 )    
  • A total of 398 014 bp long terminal repeat retrotransposons(LTR-RT)were found in the genomic sequence of Vaccinium macrocarpon‘Ben Lear’,accounting for 11.17% of the whole genome,among which 228 Ty1-Copia family members and 137 Ty3-Gypsy family members were identified in all LTR-RTs. Fifty-three primers were developed based on LTR-RT insertion polymorphisms. Using 45 blueberry cultivars and one cranberry cultivar,17 pairs of polymorphic primers were screened and retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism(RBIP)system of blueberry was established. Phylogenetic analyses and molecular identity of 46 germplasms were performed using RBIP markers. The locus with the highest polymorphism was Vmrg1,the lowest locus was Vmrg14. The size of PCR products varied from 200 bp to 463 bp,and the minimum and maximum length products were found at loci Vmrc19 and Vmrc3,respectively. All the cultivars were clustered into six groups in the phylogenetic tree. GroupⅠwas comprised of three northern highbush blueberries while cranberry was clustered into group Ⅵ. Other four groups included northern highbush blueberries,southern highbush blueberries and/or rabbiteye blueberries. Molecular identity of 45 blueberry cultivars and one cranberry cultivar were constructed using“1”and“0”strings obtained from 17 polymorphic loci,which provided references for identification of bluberry cultivars.

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  • Studies on the Optimized Scheme of Nitrogen,Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizations of Cucumber in Solar-greenhouse Under Integral Control of Water and Fertilization
  • WANG Qi1,WU Chuntao2,LI Dandan1,WANG Haiguang1,BI Huangai1,and AI Xizhen1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 764-774. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0573
  • Abstract ( 206 ) HTML ( 755 ) PDF (1558KB) ( 755 )    
  • The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the optimum amount of nitrogen(N),phosphorus (P2O5)and potassium(K2O)in cucumber cultivated in solar-greenhouse under integral control of water and fertilization. The effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium on the yield and quality of cucumber were investigated with the three factors and double saturated D-optimum design. A mathematical model for the optimization was established using nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium amounts as the independent variables,and the yield and quality of cucumber as objective function. The results showed that nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium significantly influenced the yield and quality of cucumber,but phosphorus and potassium had a higher effect than nitrogen. When the amount of N,P2O5,K2O reached to 861.5 kg · hm-2,306.1 kg · hm-2 and 1 082.0 kg · hm-2 respectively,the marginal yield effect reduced to zero. Similarly,the marginal quality effect reduced to zero when the amount of N,P2O5,K2O reached to 688.4 kg · hm-2,320.2 kg · hm-2 and 1 230.2 kg · hm-2 respectively. Through simulated computation,the schemes of optimized fertilization of cucumber were finally obtained. The yield of cucumber could reach to 138 000 kg · hm-2 or more,and the comprehensive score of quality achieved to 88 when the fertilizer rates are N 665.5–827.6 kg · hm-2,P2O5 267.9–334.3 kg · hm-2,K2O 1 043.1–1 235.0 kg · hm-2. The suitable ratio of N︰P2O5︰K2O is 1︰0.40︰1.53.

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  • Variance Analysis of Metabolite Components Between Low Sugar Wild and High Sugar Cultivated Watermelon Fruits
  • CUI Xiaxia1,2,*,WANG Yaqin2,*,REN Yi2,Alisdair R. Fernie3,Saleh Alseekh4,HE Hongju2,GONG Guoyi2,ZHANG Haiying2,GUO Shaogui2,ZHANG Jie2,and XU Yong2,**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 775-783. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0886
  • Abstract ( 315 ) HTML ( 748 ) PDF (1119KB) ( 748 )    
  • Five representative watermelon accessions were analyzed using UHPLC–MS/MS,and the primary metabolites of the high sugar cultivar‘97103’and low sugar wild accession‘PI296341’fruits were quantified using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometery(GC–MS). A total of 58 metabolites were identified,among which 27 compounds were significantly different. Raffinose content was much higher in the wild accession PI296341 than that in the cultivar 97103 fruits,and very few raffinose remained in the cultivar 97103 fruits. Analysis of differential metabolites and metabolic pathways revealed that cultivar 97103 fruits accumulated more metabolites from photosynthate unloading(raffinose and stachyose)and sucrose accumulating pathways,while the metabolites from the metabolism pathways of amino acids and organic acids and glucose-6-phosphate were the majority in PI296341 fruits. These findings provide important insights into the metabolic evolution from wild to cultivated species. The identification of metabolic properties can provide technical guidance for future improvement of watermelon quality.

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  • Cloning and Expression Analysis of LlAGO1 in Lilium lancifolium
  • YANG Panpan1,2,XU Hua2,XU Leifeng2,TANG Yuchao2,HE Guoren2,CAO Yuwei2,YUAN Suxia2,REN Junfang3,and MING Jun1,2,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 784-794. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0601
  • Abstract ( 242 ) HTML ( 698 ) PDF (2169KB) ( 698 )    
  • In this study,AGO1 gene was isolated from the leaf axil of Lilium lancifolium by using reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends(RACE)techniques,and was named as LlAGO1. The full length cDNA of LlAGO1 was 4 014 bp,which contained a 3 687 bp complete open reading frame(ORF)and encoded 1 228 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 135.36 kD,bioelectric point value of 9.57. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that it contains two conserved domains named PAZ and Piwi. Signal peptide prediction indicated that LlAGO1 without signal peptide and was a secreted protein. LlAGO1 was predicted to locate in the nuclear. In the phylogenetic tree,LlAGO1 has the closest evolutionary relationship with the homologous protein from Asparagus officinalis(XP_020260210.1). The qRT-PCR analysis showed that LlAGO1 expressed in most of the tested tissues,but mainly occurred in leaf axil,and the lowest in leaf and root. During the process of axillary bulbil formation,LlAGO1 gene only expressed in the upper leaf axils which were able to generate bulbils and the expression was the highest at S3 stage,but didn’t express in the lower leaf axils which could not form bulbils,which implied that this gene might play an important role in regulating the formation of axillary bulbils.

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Discussion

  • On‘Three Degree’Method for the Evaluation of the Fruit Nutritive Values
  • LIU Zhe1,HE Shasha1,*,LU Baiyi 2,**,and ZHOU Zhiqin1,3,4,**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 795-804. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0648
  • Abstract ( 438 ) HTML ( 756 ) PDF (681KB) ( 756 )    
  • In an attempt to solve the problems,such as concept confusion,no specified reference,no recognized method and standard,which were encountered in current studies of fruit nutrition values,we proposed a new‘Three Degree’(3D)method for future evaluation of fruit nutrition quality in this paper . By saying 3D,we mean the degree of diversity(DD),degree of match(DM)and degree of balance(DB)of the human essential nutrients contained in a fruit or its derived products. DD indicates the‘presence’or‘absence’of the different nutrients in a fruit,DM shows their percentages in meeting the daily needs of human body,and DB evaluates the‘ratio-relationships’among the nutrients. All 3D indices were calculated based on the daily human needs of the essential nutrients. Therefore,3D method revealed the relationship between the essential nutrients of a fruit or fruit product and their daily human needs. To our knowledge,this study was the first report on a comprehensive,systematic and normalized evaluation of fruit nutritive values. Our 3D index provided a potential new approach for the categorization,grading and control of fruit nutrition quality,and made it possible for a direct comparison of the nutritive values of different fruits and their derived products.

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New Cultivars

  • A New Walnut Cultivar‘Meixiang’
  • HAO Yanbin,CHEN Yonghao,DONG Ningguang,WU Chunlin,and QI Jianxun*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 805-806. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0594
  • Abstract ( 310 ) HTML ( 493 ) PDF (993KB) ( 493 )    
  • ‘Meixiang’is a new late bearing walnut cultivar selected from hybrid seedlings of ‘Xiangling’בYunxin 34’. The nut shape is ellipse,and the apex and base of nut are both round. The nuts range in weight from 8.7 g to 18.5 g,and average 12.8 g. The thickness of shell is 1.14 mm. Kernel weight is 55.5% of nut. It is relatively easy to take out the whole kernel. The kernel is very full and fat. The color of kernel is light yellow or white-yellow,and it tastes fragrant and not astringent. The content of total fat and protein is 68.7% and 19.1%,respectively. It yields well and has high resistances to cold and disease.

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  • A New Heat-resistant Pak-choi Cultivar‘Xinxiaqing 5’
  • LI Xiaofeng,ZHU Hongfang,ZHU Yuying*,and HOU Ruixian
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2018, 45(4): 807-808. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0422
  • Abstract ( 348 ) HTML ( 350 ) PDF (950KB) ( 350 )    
  • ‘Xinxiaqing 5’is a new heat-resistant pak-choi hybrid by crossing two self-incompatible lines‘323-147’and‘309-505’with homozygous genotype and excellent traits. The plant is erect with compact plant type and vigorous growth,with glossy green outer leaves and wide-long green petiole. It showed heat resistance,disease resistance(such as virus and downy mildew disease)and high quality. It could be harvested at 15–40 days after seeding and its average yield could be up to 25 350 kg · hm-2 at 35 days after seeding. It is suitable for cultivation in Shanghai and the similar ecological conditions in Yangtze River middle and lower reaches in summer and early autumn.

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