园艺学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 623-632.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2015-0381

• 果树 • 上一篇    下一篇


张 东1,张宝娟1,李文强2,马娟娟1,檀 鸣1,杜俊兰1,韩明玉1,*   

  1. (1西北农林科技大学园艺学院,陕西杨凌 712100;2西安果友协会,陕西乾县 713307)
  • 出版日期:2016-04-25 发布日期:2016-04-25

Characteristics of Different Scion-rootstock Combinations on Root Development and Distribution of Apple Sapling in the Weibei Loess Highlands

ZHANG Dong1,ZHANG Bao-juan1,LI Wen-qiang2,MA Juan-juan1,TAN Ming1,DU Jun-lan1,and HAN Ming-yu1,*   

  1. (1College of Horticulture,Northwest A & F University,Yangling,Shaanxi 712100,China;2Xi’an Fruit Association,Qianxian,Shaanxi 713307,China)
  • Online:2016-04-25 Published:2016-04-25


砧穗组合选配是苹果矮砧集约栽培模式的关键环节之一,幼树的早果性和易成形性是评判砧穗组合优劣的重要指标,这与幼树根系分布密切相关以中国苹果生产上8种常见砧穗组合的3年生幼树为试材,采用壕沟法对幼树根系分布特征进行了调查分析。结果表明:8种砧穗组合幼树根构型可以分为M系自根砧、SH系自根砧、乔化实生砧木、M系中间砧和SH系中间砧等5大类。3年生幼树根系在水平和垂直方向分布的主要区域,均为0 ~ 60 cm范围,且随着距树干距离的增大而减少。不同砧穗组合,根系长度以直径 < 2 mm级别的根系最长,其次是直径2 ~ 5 mm的,10 mm以上的最短。乔化实生砧木较无性系矮化砧木粗根多,而须根少;矮化砧木中,M系砧木根系构成以须根为主,而SH系和青砧系砧木须根均较少。砧穗组合幼树的地上分枝数、短枝比例和花芽数等早果性指标与细根(直径 < 2 mm)根系数量、根长密度和根表面积密度呈显著正相关关系。通过对各砧穗组合易成花和易成形的综合评价,认为在渭北黄土高原有灌溉条件的地区,M系自根砧和中间砧组合早果性好和易成形较好SH系组合较易成形,但早果性较差,乔化组合早果性最差,这与它们的根系分布特征密切相关

关键词: 苹果, 幼树, 黄土高原, 砧穗组合, 根系发育和分布

Abstract: It is one of the key practices for the high efficiency mode of apple production to properly select and combine scion and rootstocks. Flower formation and plant shaping of apple sapling are the important indexes to evaluate their performances,which was closely related to the root distributions with these combinations. With three year young trees from 8 kinds of typical scion-rootstock combinations as its subjects,this study investigated root distributions with the different scion-rootstock combinations by sectoral digging and trenching. The results showed that:the root architecture of young trees from 8 kinds of typical scion-rootstock combinations were classified into five types,M dwarfing rootstock combinations,SH dwarfing rootstock combinations,vigorous rootstock combinations,M dwarfing interstock combina- tions and SH dwarfing interstock combinations. It showed that the roots of the apple saplings with three years distributed horizontally and vertically within the limits of 0–60 cm,and the further away from their trunks and the deeper into soil,the less dense they distributed. With the different scion-rootstock combinations,the longest roots were roots with diameters of < 2 mm,followed by roots with diameters of 2–5 mm,and the shortest roots were those with diameters of more than 10 mm. There were more thick roots and less fibrous roots with the arborescent seedling root stocks than with the dwarfing clone rootstocks. Among the dwarfing rootstocks,fibrous roots dominated with the M rootstocks and less with the SH and Qingzhen rootstocks. Of the trees,stem diameters and crown diameters,but significantly positively correlated with the branch number,short-shoot proportion and flower bud number. Evaluations of the scion-rootstock combinations in terms of flower formation and plant shaping indicated that in irrigation-available regions of the Weibei Highlands,the trees from the M rootstock and interstock were able to set fruits early and easy to shape;the trees from the SH rootstock were easy to shape and poorly performed in early fruit set;and the trees from the arborescent combinations performed most poorly in early fruit set,which was closely related to the root distributions with these scion-rootstock combinations.

Key words: apple, sapling, loess plateau, scion-rootstock combination, root development and distribution