园艺学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 1681-1692.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0382

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  1. (山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院,作物生物学国家重点实验室,山东泰安 271018)
  • 出版日期:2017-09-25 发布日期:2017-09-25

Technical Approach and Research Prospect of Saving and Improving Efficiency of Chemical Fertilizers for Apple in China

GE Shunfeng*,ZHU Zhanling*,WEI Shaochong,and JIANG Yuanmao**   

  1. (College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology,Tai’an,Shandong 271018,China)
  • Online:2017-09-25 Published:2017-09-25

摘要: 在中国贫瘠的果园土壤条件下,化肥在苹果增产过程中发挥了重要作用,同时不合理的化肥使用也带来了肥料利用率低、果实品质下降、土壤质量降低、水体富营养化和温室气体排放等问题。因此,科学施肥提高化肥利用率,减少由于化肥损失带来的环境污染是关系到苹果产业能否实现绿色可持续发展的重大科技问题。分析了中国苹果养分管理中存在的问题,综述了当前已有的苹果化肥减量增效技术,主要包括障碍性土壤改良与培肥地力、最佳养分管理、根层养分调控和新型肥料与“大配方、小调整”区域配肥技术,并对今后苹果化肥减量增效技术的研究进行了展望。

关键词: 苹果, 化肥减量增效, 土壤改良与培肥地力, 最佳养分管理, 根层养分调控

Abstract: Chemical fertilizer plays an important role in apple production under the poor soil condition in China. At the same time,improper use of chemical fertilizer resulted in low utilization efficiency and negative impact on fruit quality,soil quality,eutrophication,and greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore,scientific use of nutrient resources and improvement in chemical fertilizer use efficiency is an important scientific issue related to the green and sustainable development of apple industry. This paper analyzed current status on the nutrient management in apple orchard and overviewed current technologies of saving and improving efficiency of chemical fertilizer. The technologies include soil amelioration and soil fertility improvement,best nutrient management,root-zone nutrient regulation,newly emerging fertilizer,and regional formulation fertilizer technology based on‘Regional Fertilizer Formula and Site Specific Adjustment’. Future research prospect related to saving and improving efficiency of chemical fertilizers for apple is also discussed.

Key words: apple, saving and improving efficiency, soil amelioration and soil fertility improvement, best nutrient management, root-zone nutrient regulation