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园艺学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (8): 1530-1540.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0046

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

土壤质地和砧木对苹果根际微生物功能多样性及其碳源利用的影响

徐龙晓,荀 咪,宋建飞,田孝志,殷方鹏,黄伟男,张玮玮,杨洪强*   

  1. 山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院,作物生物学国家重点实验室,山东泰安 271018
  • 出版日期:2020-08-25 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD1000103);国家自然科学基金项目(31772251);山东省重大科技创新工程项目(2018CXGC0207);山东省自然科学基金重大基础研究项目(ZR2018ZC08N3)

Effect of Soil Textures and Rootstock on Rhizosphere Microorganism and Carbon Source Utilization of Apple Roots

XU Longxiao,XUN Mi,SONG Jianfei,TIAN Xiaozhi,YIN Fangpeng,HUANG Weinan,ZHANG Weiwei,and YANG Hongqiang*   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology,College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University,Tai’an,Shandong 271018,China
  • Online:2020-08-25 Published:2020-08-25

摘要: 以分别栽培于砂壤土、壤土和黏壤土,砧木为八棱海棠(Malus robusta Rehd.)和平邑甜茶(Malus hupehensis Rehd.)的2年生盆栽‘红富士’苹果(Malus × domestica Borkh.‘Red Fuji’)幼树根际土为试材,分析根际和未栽植果树的非根际土壤细菌16S rRNA基因拷贝数、细菌根际效应、微生物群落代谢活性、功能多样性及其碳源利用类型等。结果表明,根际和非根际土壤细菌的拷贝数、微生物群落代谢活性以及功能多样性指数均是黏壤土 > 壤土 > 砂壤土、平邑甜茶根际土 > 八棱海棠根际土、根际土 > 非根际土。两种砧木的细菌根际效应均是在砂壤土最大,黏壤土最小;砂壤土中的细菌丰度受砧木的影响最大。根际和非根际微生物群落碳源利用能力均是黏壤土 > 壤土 > 砂壤土;根际微生物群落对酚酸和羧酸类碳源的利用能力显著高于非根际;八棱海棠根际微生物群落对羧酸类碳源的利用能力在砂壤土中最高、在黏壤土中最低,平邑甜茶根际微生物群落正相反。根际微生物群落碳源利用类型因土壤质地而异,在砂壤土中主要利用氨基酸类,其次是碳水化合物和羧酸类;在壤土中主要利用碳水化合物,其次是多聚物类和氨基酸类;在黏壤土中主要利用多聚物类,其次是氨基酸类和碳水化合物。主成分分析显示土壤质地使根际微生物群落类型分离,而两种砧木的根际微生物群落在同一质地土壤下聚集在一起,即苹果根际微生物群落碳源利用类型更易受到土壤质地影响,而砧木差异所带来的影响较小。

关键词: 土壤质地, 苹果, 砧木, 根际微生物, 功能多样性, 根际效应

Abstract: Bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number,bacterial rhizosphere effect,microbial community metabolic activity,functional diversity and carbon source utilization types in rhizosphere and non- rhizosphere soils were analyzed in two-year old potted apple trees(Malus × domestica Borkh.‘Red Fuji’ with Malus robusta Rehd. and Malus hupehensis Rehd. as rootstock)planted in sandy loam,loam and clay loam respectively. Results showed that among all parameters that were tested,three of them including the bacterial copy number,microbial community metabolic activity and functional diversity index displayed the exact same trend. Clay loam had the highest numbers followed by loam and sandy loam. Numbers in M. hupehensis were higher than those in M. robusta. Rhizosphere soil had higher numbers than non-rhizosphere soil. Rhizosphere effects in the 2 rootstocks were the largest in sandy loam and the smallest in clay loam,and the bacterial abundance in sandy loam soil was most affected by rootstocks. The utilization capacity of carbon sources of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere microbial community in clay loam were the highest followed by loam and sandy loam. The utilization capacity of phenolic acids and carboxylic acids in rhizosphere microbial community was significantly higher than that in non-rhizosphere microbial community. Rhizosphere microbial community of M. robusta had the highest utilization capacity of carboxylic acids in sandy loam and the lowest in clay loam whereas M. hupehensis showed the opposite trends. Types of carbon sources used by rhizosphere microbial community varied with soil texture. In sandy loam,amino acids were mainly used,followed by carbohydrates and carboxylic acids; in loam,carbohydrates were mainly used,followed by polymers and amino acids; and in clay loam polymers were mainly used,followed by amino acids and carbohydrates. The principal component analysis showed that the rhizosphere microbial community types of the two rootstocks were separated by different soil texture types and they were gathered in the same soil texture,which indicated that the type of carbon source utilization of apple rhizosphere microbial community was more susceptible to soil texture,while the difference between the two rootstocks had less impacts.

Key words: soil texture, apple, rootstock, rhizosphere microorganism, functional diversity, rhizosphere effect

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