园艺学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 1704-1716.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0488

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  1. (华南农业大学园艺学院,广州 510642)
  • 出版日期:2017-09-25 发布日期:2017-09-25

A Review on Research of the Wild Species in Genus Eriobotrya Germplasm and Their Innovative Utilization

LIN Shunquan*   

  1. (College of Horticulture,South China Agricultural University,Guangzhou 510642,China)
  • Online:2017-09-25 Published:2017-09-25

摘要: ①种质资源调查、搜集和保存:调查国内14省区,确定有枇杷属(Eriobotrya)植物野生资源20种,并调查越南、老挝、缅甸、泰国等东南亚国家,搜集6个种。对上述26种枇杷属植物种质资源进行迁地保存。②整理和分类、鉴定和评价:发表1个新种,薄叶枇杷(E. fulvicoma Chun & Liao);订正1个种,大渡河枇杷(E. × dadunensis H. Z. Zhang & W. B. Liao);重新描述1个种,广西枇杷(E. kwangsiensis Chun);记录4个分布新记录种,确认并出版了26种枇杷的图谱。亲缘关系分析表明:小叶型、柱头数少(2、3或4)的窄叶枇杷、小叶枇杷、细叶枇杷是枇杷属植物基出类群,普通枇杷(栽培枇杷)与麻栗坡枇杷和椭圆枇杷等大叶型、5个柱头的种属于同一类群。对上述26个种的50余个性状进行了较全面的鉴定,并评价了部分种的交配亲和性、核型、三萜酸含量、根系生长特性、叶斑病抗性、花期和果实品质。③野生种利用研究:筛选出香花枇杷、怒江枇杷和椭圆枇杷及其种间杂种可作为栽培枇杷砧木;检测枇杷属植物叶片熊果酸等止咳关键药用成分三萜酸类,发现台湾枇杷、香花枇杷等多种野生枇杷熊果酸和齐墩果酸等药用物质高于栽培枇杷;进行了百余个种间和近缘属间组合的杂交,了解其杂交亲和性和转移优良性状给栽培枇杷的潜力。

关键词: 枇杷属, 野生种, 种质资源, 调查, 保存, 分类, 评价, 利用

Abstract: 1. Investigation,collection and conservation of the Eriobotrya germplasm. After the investigation of Eriobotrya species distributed in the 14 provinces of China,we confirmed that totally there were 20 wild Eriobotrya species which mainly distributed in Yunnan and other several provinces. Other 6 Eriobotrya species were found in several Southeast Asia countries such as Vietnam,Laos,Burma and Thailand. All the mentioned 26 Eriobotrya species were collected and ex situ conserved. 2. Categorization,identification and evaluation of the Eriobotrya germplasm. Based on newly finding,1 new species was published(E. fulvicoma Chun & Liao),1 species was revised(E. × dadunensis H. Z. Zhang & W. B. Liao),1 species was redescribed(E. kwangsiensis Chun),new distributions of 4 species were reported,and illustration of the 26 Eriobotrya species was published. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that species with smaller leaf and less stigma number(2,3 or 4) such as E. henryi Nakai,E. seguinii Card and E. angustissima Hook. f. are the basal taxa of Eriobotrya species,while species with bigger leaf and 5 stigmas such as cultivated loquat(Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.),E. malipoensis Kuan and E. elliptica Lindl. are grouped together. More than 50 traits of the 26 Eriobotrya species were characterized comprehensively and the traits with potential economic values,such as the hybridization compatibility,the karyotype,contents of the triterpene acids,developmental characters of the root,resistance to the loquat leaf spot,flowering habit and the fruit quality,were further evaluated in some species. 3. Utilization research of the Eriobotrya germplasm. Several species or their interspecific hybrids were identified as the rootstocks for cultivated loquat,including E. fragrans Champ,E. salwinensis Hand-Mazz and E. elliptica Lindl. Content detection of the triterpene acids with main medical compositions for production of antitussive,ursolic acid,for example,in the leaf indicated that several wild loquats,such as E. deflexa Nakai and E. fragrans Champ,showed a higher content level than that of the cultivated loquat. Furthermore,pathology analysis data showed that the ursolic acid and oleanolic acid extracted from leaf of E. fragrans Champ could not only inhibit the survival and proliferation of human lung cancer cell but also could induce its apoptosis. At the same time,hundreds of hybridization tests with interspecific crossing or intergenetic crossing were performed to reveal their cross-compatibility and transferable capacity of the valuable characters to the cultivated loquat.

Key words: Eriobotrya, wild species, germplasm resources, investigation, conservation, categorization, evaluation, utilization