园艺学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (6): 1371-1381.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0853

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇


邹学校1,*(), 朱凡2   

  1. 1湖南农业大学园艺学院,园艺作物种质创新与新品种选育教育部工程研究中心,长沙 410128
    2湖南农业大学风景园林与艺术设计学院,长沙 410128
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-16 修回日期:2022-04-22 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-07-05
  • 通讯作者: 邹学校
  • 基金资助:

Origin,Evolution and Cultivation History of the Pepper

ZOU Xuexiao1,*(), ZHU Fan2   

  1. 1Engineering Research Center of Education Ministry for Germplasm Innovation and Breeding New Varieties of Horticultural Crops,College of Horticulture,Hunan Agricultural University,Changsha 410128,China
    2College of Landscape Architecture and Art Design,Hunan Agricultural University,Changsha 410128,China
  • Received:2021-12-16 Revised:2022-04-22 Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-07-05
  • Contact: ZOU Xuexiao


辣椒起源于玻利维亚中南部年降雨量不到500 mm的半干旱区,属亚热带无霜区,最初原始野生种为多年生草本植物。野生辣椒的利用可追溯到8 000 ~ 7 500年以前,早期辣椒依靠飞鸟传播种子,生长区域从发源地玻利维亚逐渐扩大到南美洲、中美洲,再到北美洲西南部,在不同生态区进化产生10多个栽培种的近缘野生种和约20个非近缘野生种。辣椒栽培种由共同祖先Capsicum chacoense进化而来,紫花祖先迁移到安第斯高地,进化产生了绒毛辣椒(Capsicum pubescens);白花祖先迁移到玻利维亚南部相对干燥的地区进化产生下垂辣椒(Capsicum baccatum),继续迁移到潮湿的亚马逊盆地,进化产生了一年生辣椒、灌木辣椒和中国辣椒的共同祖先。共同祖先继续向外迁移,在墨西哥和中美洲北部进化产生了一年生辣椒,在加勒比地区进化产生了灌木辣椒,在亚马逊河流域北部谷地进化产生了中国辣椒。辣椒的驯化是将野生种从原产地移出进行人工栽培开始,将易脱落、果实小、色泽单一、果实朝上的野生种,改变成不易脱落、果实朝下、肥大化及形状、颜色多样化、经济效益好的栽培种。一年生辣椒在墨西哥和中美洲最早进化,已有6 000多年的栽培历史,其他4个栽培种至少有4 000年的栽培历史,是美洲最古老的栽培植物之一。

关键词: 辣椒, 起源, 进化, 驯化, 野生种, 栽培种, 栽培历史


The Pepper originated in the semi-arid area in central and southern Bolivia where the annual rainfall is less than 500 mm. This is a subtropical frost-free area. The original wild species are perennial herbs. According to the analysis and study of the starch granules,the Capsicum starch microfossils have been found dating from 8 000-7 500 years ago. Over thousands of years,Capsicum seeds spread out from Bolivia with the help of birds and indigenous peoples,thus spreading throughout South and Central America,then to the southwest of North America. In different ecological regions,more than 10 wild relatives and about 20 wild non-relatives of cultivated species have evolved. Capsicum cultivars evolved from the common ancestor Capsicum chacoense. The purple flower ancestors migrated to the Andes highlands and evolved to Capsicum pubescens. And the white flower ancestors migrated to the relatively dry area of southern Bolivia to evolve to Capsicum baccatum,continuing to migrate to the humid Amazon basin and evolve to the common ancestors of Capsicum annuum,Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum chinense Jacquin. They continued to migrate outward,evolving Capsicum annuum in Mexico and northern Central America,Capsicum frutescens L. in the Caribbean,and Capsicum chinense Jacquin in the northern valleys of the Amazon Basin. The pepper domestication started by removing the wild species from the original area for artificial cultivation. The wild species with the fruit small,single-color,upward-facing and easily falling off were domesticated into cultivated species with the fruit succulent,various-shaped,colorful,downward-facing,and not easy falling off,i.e. good economic benefits. Capsicum annuum was the first cultivated species domesticated in Mexico and Central America more than 6 000 years ago,and the other four cultivated species had been cultivated for at least 4 000 years,which are the oldest cultivated plants in America.

Key words: pepper, origin, evolution, domestication, wild species, cultivated species, cultivation