园艺学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (10): 2063-2074.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0701

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  1. 华中农业大学园艺林学学院,园艺植物生物学教育部重点实验室,武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-05 修回日期:2022-08-25 出版日期:2022-10-25 发布日期:2022-10-31
  • 通讯作者: 邓秀新
  • 基金资助:

A Review and Perspective for Citrus Breeding in China During the Last Six Decades

DENG Xiuxin()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology,Ministry of Education,College of Horticulture & Forestry Sciences,Huazhong Agricultural University,Wuhan 430070,China
  • Received:2022-07-05 Revised:2022-08-25 Online:2022-10-25 Published:2022-10-31
  • Contact: DENG Xiuxin


过去的60年,中国柑橘遗传改良与品种选育研究取得长足进展。据统计,在中国重庆、武汉等地建立的柑橘种质资源迁地保存圃、愈伤组织库分别保存了1 700多份芸香科材料和100多个柑橘品种的胚性愈伤组织。经调查,发掘到道县野橘、莽山野柑、红河大翼橙等多个野生种及迷你野生柑橘——单胚山金柑;发掘的'资阳香橙'已作为砧木应用于产业。累计选育柑橘新品种122个,包含121个接穗品种和1个砧木品种,涉及宽皮橘、橙、柚等主要柑橘类型。上述接穗品种88.5%来自芽变和实生选种,余下的11.5%来自人工创制的变异,包括杂交、诱变和细胞融合等途径产生的变异;改良的性状主要是无籽、熟期和色泽等。在育种技术方面,组学技术全面应用于柑橘遗传改良,完成了甜橙等柑橘主要类型的基因组测序,发掘到柑橘重要农艺性状的相关基因,如控制多胚的基因CitRWP等;建立起柑橘遗传转化和基因编辑技术体系,为柑橘基因组设计育种奠定了坚实基础。

关键词: 柑橘, 种质资源, 遗传改良, 育种, 品种, 组学


Citrus genetic improvement has achieved a great progress during the last six decades in China. A repository harboring more than 1 700 accessions of Rutaceae in Chongqing and an embryogenic callus collection including more than 100 varieties in Wuhan have been established,respectively. Continuing exploration of citrus germplasm resulted in the identification of wild Daoxian tangerine,Honghe papeda and the mini-citrus,a mono-embryonic Hongkong kumquat for functional genmics research. A new type of rootstock,Ziyang Xiangcheng(Citrus junos)has been utilized in Chinese citrus industry. A total of 122 citrus varieties including 121 for scion and one for rootstock have been registered or protected by PVP. Out of the scion varieties,88.5% is from the natural mutation including the bud-sport and chance seedling variation,and the rest from artifically created mutants,such as the irradiation,hybridization and protoplast fusion etc. These varieties covered nearly all types of citrus,including loose-skin mandarin,sweet orange and pummelo etc,with improved seedlessness,mature season and fruit color etc. The omics technologies have been widely used in citrus genetic improvement in China. Genomes including sweet orange and other main citrus species have been sequenced and assembled during the recent decade,as has accelerated cloning of the key genes controlling import agronomic traits,such as the polyembryonic related gene CitRWP etc. Genetic transformation and gene editing are also setup in Citrus. These achievments have laid a solid base for citrus genome-design breeding for the future.

Key words: citrus, germplasm, genetic improvement, breeding, varity, genomics