http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner1.jpg|#|苹果
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner2.jpg|#|甘蓝
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner3.jpg|#|菊花
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner4.jpg|#|灵芝
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner5.jpg|#|桃
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner6.jpg|#|黄瓜
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner7.jpg|#|蝴蝶兰
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner8.jpg|#|樱桃
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner9.jpg|#|观赏荷花
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner10.jpg|#|菊花
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner11.jpg|#|月季
http://www.ahs.ac.cn/images/0513-353X/images/top-banner12.jpg|#|菊花

园艺学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (3): 421-431.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0448

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

矮化中间砧‘宫藤富士’苹果栽植密度对树体生长、冠层光照和果实产量的影响

李民吉,张 强,李兴亮,周贝贝,高木旺,杨雨璋,周 佳,张军科,魏钦平*   

  1. 北京市林业果树科学研究院,农业部华北都市农业重点实验室,北京 100093
  • 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-03-25
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201128);北京市农林科学院青年科研基金项目(QNJJ 201729);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金项目(CARS-27)

Effect of Different Planting Densities on Growth,Distribution of Light in the Canopy and Yield of‘Fuji’Apple Trees on Dwarfing Interstocks

LI Minji,ZHANG Qiang,LI Xingliang,ZHOU Beibei,GAO Muwang,YANG Yuzhang,ZHOU Jia,ZHANG Junke,and WEI Qinping*   

  1. Beijing Academy of Forestry and Pomology Sciences,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture(North China),Ministry of Agriculture,Beijing 100093,China
  • Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-03-25

摘要: 2011 年春季定植的矮化中间砧苹果成品苗(3 年根 1 年干的‘宫藤富士’/SH6/平邑甜茶)为试材,设置 7 种不同的栽植密度(株行距分别为 1 m × 3 m、1.5 m × 3 m、2 m × 3 m、0.75 m × 4 m、1 m × 4 m、1.25 m × 4 m 和 1.5 m × 4 m),细纺锤形整枝修剪,自栽植第 2 年,连续 7 年调查 7 种栽植密度对树体生长、冠层光照分布、果实产量和品质的影响。随着树龄的增长,不同栽植密度下树干粗度和总枝量逐年增加,不同处理间树干粗度无显著差异,第 7 年 1 m × 3 m 和 0.75 m × 4 m 两个栽植密度下树体总枝量超过 140 万条 · hm-2,第 8 年均超过 140 万条 · hm-2。栽植前期(第 2 ~ 4 年)各栽植密度树体短枝比例不断增加,长枝比例不断减少,第 5 年各栽植密度枝类组成趋于稳定;综合稳产 3 年(第 6 ~ 8 年)树体的枝类组成数据,4 m 行距的短枝比例明显高于 3 m 行距,长枝比例略低。树体冠层平均相对光照强度由高到低的株行距处理依次为 1.5 m × 4 m(63.87%)、1.25 m × 4 m(61.44%)、2 m × 3 m(61.27%)、1 m × 4 m(59.19%)、0.75 m × 4 m(55.79%)、1.5 m × 3 m(53.67%)和 1 m × 3 m(49.37%);相同栽植株数下,4 m 行距处理低光效(相对光照强度小于 40%)的区域比例显著小于 3 m 行距。比较前 5 年的累计产量,以行距 4 m 和 1 m × 3 m 的最高。综合稳产 3 年的结果情况,大果率(单果质量 > 200 g 的果实产量占总产量的比例)以 4 m 行距和 2 m × 3 m 的最高。各栽植密度下的果实的可溶性固形物含量、固酸比、果形指数和果实硬度均无显著差异。综上,采用 4 m 行距,1 ~ 1.25 m 株距,树体成形快,稳产后树体结构合理,冠层光照充足,低效光区比例少,前期产量高。

关键词: 苹果, 栽植密度, 矮化中间砧, 树体生长, 产量, 品质

Abstract: The‘Fuji’apple with SH6 dwarf interstock planted in spring 2011 was used to investigate the effect of 7 different tree planting densities(1 m × 3 m,1.5 m × 3 m,2 m × 3 m,0.75 m × 4 m,1 m × 4 m,1.25 m × 4 m and 1.5 m × 4 m)on growth,distribution of light in the canopy,yield and quality in Beijing from 2012 to 2018. By the 7th year of planting,the total number of branches in 1 m × 3 m and 0.75 m × 4 m planting densities exceeded 1.4 million · hm-2,and by the 8th year of planting,the total number of branches in each planting density exceeded 1.4 million · hm-2. In the first four years,with the growth of age,the proportion of long branch was decreased,the increasing proportion of short branches of all planting densities was increased. From the fifth year,the number and proportion of branches of different lengths began to be stable. According to the branch composition of trees with stable yield for 3 years,the proportion of short branches with 4 m row spacing was significantly higher than that with 3 m row spacing,while the proportion of long branches was slightly lower. Under different planting densities,there were great differences in the distribution of canopy light. The average relative light intensity of canopy was 1.5 m × 4 m(63.87%),1.25 m × 4 m(61.44%),2 m × 3 m(61.27%),1 m × 4 m(59.19%),0.75 m × 4 m(55.79%),1.5 m × 3 m(53.67%)and 1 m × 3 m(49.37%)from high to low. Under the same plant number,the proportion of low light efficiency(relative light intensity less than 40%)in 4 m row spacing treatment was significantly less than that in 3 m row spacing treatment. Compared with the cumulative yield in the previous five years,row spacing of 4 m was significantly better than row spacing of 3 m,and the cumulative fruit yield was the highest under three planting densities of 0.75 m × 4 m,1 m × 4 m and 1.25 m × 4 m. According to the results of three years’ stable yield,the order of big fruit rate(the proportion of fruit weight > 200 g to total yield)from high to low was 1.25 m × 4 m > 1.5 m × 4 m > 1 m × 4 m > 2 m × 3 m > 0.75 m × 4 m > 1.5 m × 3 m > 1 m × 3 m,and the big fruit rate of 4 m row spacing was obviously higher than that of 3 m row spacing. Comparing the fruit quality of different planting densities,there were no significant differences in soluble solids content,solid-acid ratio,fruit shape index and fruit firmness among different planting densities. We recommend using row spacing of 4 m and plant spacing of 1–1.25 m in production.

Key words: apple, tree planting density, dwarf interstock, tree growth, fruit yield;quality

中图分类号: