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园艺学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (3): 541-550.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0193

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

双主干并棒树形对矮化自根砧苹果幼树生长和结果的影响

马小龙 1,马豆豆 1,史继东 3,韩明玉 1,杨伟伟 2,*,张 东 1,*   

  1. 1 西北农林科技大学园艺学院,国家苹果改良中心杨凌分中心,陕西杨凌 712100;2石河子大学农学院,新疆石河子 832000;3 宝鸡华圣果业有限责任公司,陕西宝鸡 721000
  • 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-03-25
  • 基金资助:
    陕西省重点研发计划重点项目(2017ZDXM-NY-019);杨凌示范区科技计划项目(2018NY-08);陕西省科技统筹创新工程项目(2016KTZDNY01-04);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金项目(CARS-27)

Effect of Bi-axis Bibaum Tree Shape on Growth and Bearing of Young Apple Tree on Dwarf Rootstock

MA Xiaolong1,MA Doudou1,SHI Jidong3,HAN Mingyu1,YANG Weiwei2,*,and ZHANG Dong1,*   

  1. 1College of Horticulture,Northwest A & F University,The Yangling Subsidiary Center Project of the National Apple Improvement Center,Yangling,Shaanxi 712100,China;2College of Agriculture,Shihezi University,Shihezi,Xinjiang 832000,China;3Baoji Huasheng Fruit Co.,LTD,Baoji,Shaanxi 721000,China
  • Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-03-25

摘要: 为了探究双主干并棒(Bibaum?)树形‘富士’系苹果在中国渭北黄土高原地区的生长和结果表现,以 M9-T337 矮化自根砧长枝型‘富士’系‘富姬酷’(‘Fujiko’)为试材,调查了并棒形(1.2 m × 3.5 m)与高纺锤形(1.0 m × 3.5 m)幼树树体生长、枝(梢)类组成、成花率、果实品质和产量等指标。结果表明:并棒形树高、干径小于高纺锤形,砧木粗度大于高纺锤形,2016 年东西方向冠幅(行间冠幅)及平均冠幅小于高纺锤形;单株枝量及单位面积枝量 2016 年高纺锤形较高,2017 年无差异;并棒形2016—2017 年间树高、干径、砧木粗度以及单位面积枝量的年增长速率大于高纺锤形;并棒形 2016 年中枝(5 ~ 15 cm)比例、果台副梢长枝比例高于高纺锤形,2017 年营养长枝(> 30 cm)比例低于高纺锤形,同时并棒形 2018 年枝梢成花率高于高纺锤形;两种树形果实品质及单位面积产量无差异,并棒形单株果实数量、2017 年单株产量以及 2016—2017 年单位面积产量在增长速率大于高纺锤形。综合认为,矮化自根砧‘富士’系幼树采用并棒树形,可以显著削弱树体高度,减小行间冠幅,树体生长及枝量增长速度快,长枝比例低,易成花,果实产量上升潜力大。

关键词: 苹果, 矮化自根砧, 并棒树形, 树体生长, 品质, 产量

Abstract: In this study,‘Fujiko’(a long shoot-type Fuji series cultivar)young apple trees on M9-T337 dwarf rootstocks were selected as the test material,growth,shoot constitution proportion, flowering ratio,fruit quality and yield were investigated between Bibaum?(1.2 m × 3.5 m)and tall spindle (1.0 m × 3.5 m)tree shapes,in order to explore the performance on tree growth and bearing of Fuji apple with bi-axis Bibaum tree shape in Chinese Weibei Loess Plateau. The results showed that plant height,trunk diameter and east-west crown diameter(between rows)of Bibaum tree in 2016 were significantly smaller than tall spindle,and the rootstock diameter was greater than tall spindle tree. Number of shoots per plant and per hectare were higher in tall spindle trees in 2016,while no significant difference was observed in 2017. The increase rates of height,trunk diameter,rootstock diameter and shoot number per hectare were higher in Bibaum trees from 2016 to 2017. Moreover,proportions of medium shoots(5–15 cm)and bourse long shoots in 2016 were higher in Bibaum trees,while it was lower for the proportion of vegetative long shoots(> 30 cm)in Bibaum in 2017. Simultaneously,the flowering ratio of Bibaum trees was significantly higher in 2018. No significant difference was observed in fruit quality and yield per hectare between two tree shapes,nevertheless the fruit number,yield per tree in 2017,and the increase of yield for Bibaum from 2016 to 2017 were higher than that of tall spindle trees. In conclusion,Fuji series apple trees on dwarf rootstocks with Bibaum tree shape can significantly reduce tree height,meanwhile Bibaum showed flatter tree shape,rapid tree growth,increase in number of shoots,easier to produce flowers,less proportion of vegetative long shoots,and higher potential in increasing yield.

Key words: apple, dwarf rootstock, Bibaum, tree growth, quality, yield

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