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园艺学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (10): 1917-1929.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0982

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北寒地96份李种质资源表型性状遗传多样性分析

林存学,杨晓华,刘海荣*   

  1. 黑龙江省农业科学院牡丹江分院,黑龙江牡丹江 157041
  • 出版日期:2020-10-25 发布日期:2020-11-10
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD02B00);黑龙江省农业科学院青年基金项目(2019YYYF002)

Genetic Diversity Analysis of 96 Plum Germplasm Resources by Phenotypic Traits in Northeast Cold Area

LIN Cunxue,YANG Xiaohua,and LIU Hairong*   

  1. Mudanjiang Branch,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Mudanjiang,Heilongjiang 157041,China
  • Online:2020-10-25 Published:2020-11-10

摘要: 为了深入了解李(Prunus L.)种质资源表型性状的变异特点和多样性,按照《李种质资源描述规范和数据标准》,对黑龙江省农业科学院牡丹江分院李资源圃内保存的96份寒地李种质资源20个描述型表型性状进行观测和描述,对16个数量型表型性状进行相关性、聚类、主成分等分析。结果表明,20个描述型性状,共观测到66个变异类型,其中叶片形状、果皮颜色、果核形状等变异范围较大。Shannon-Wiener信息指数(H)和Simpson遗传多样性指数(D)变化范围分别为0.3768 ~ 1.3993和0.2188 ~ 0.7196,其中果皮颜色(H:1.2093,D:0.6814)、叶片形状(H:1.1227,D:0.5484)等性状多样性指数较高。16个数量型性状中,单果质量变异系数最大,为61.32%;果形指数变异系数最小,为8.72%。聚类分析将96份寒地李种质资源在欧式距离22处将各种质资源分为3大类群,其中第Ⅰ类可用于选育离核、抗性强的品种;第Ⅱ类可用于选育抗性强、丰产品种;第Ⅲ类可用于选育果大、可食率高、离核品种。主成分分析结果表明,前5个主成分累计贡献率达到78.191%,主要有果实纵径、果实横径、1年生枝粗等性状,主要反映了果实大小和枝条性状因子,果实性状对于东北寒地李种质资源表型性状变异的贡献率最大,一年生枝条次之。结合相关性分析结果,16个数量型性状可简化为果实纵径、果实横径、叶片宽、果核横径、果形指数、叶片长、1年生枝粗7个主要指标,提高了寒地李种质资源评价和选育鉴定工作的效率。性

关键词: 李, 资源, 寒地, 表型性状, 遗传多样性

Abstract: In order to further understand the genetic diversity of plum germplasm resources,20 descriptive phenotypic traits of 96 samples were kept in Mudanjiang Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences were evaluated according to the‘Plums germplasm resources description specification and data standard’. Sixteen quantitative phenotypic traits were analyzed by correlation analysis,cluster analysis,principal component. The results showed that a total of 66 variant types were observed for the 20 descriptive traits. Among them,the leaf shape,the color of the peel and the shape of the core had a large variation range. The Shannon-Wiener information index H and Simpson genetic diversity index D ranged from 0.3768 to 1.3993 and 0.2188 to 0.7196,respectively,and the higer diversity indexes were observed in fruit color(H:1.2093,D:0.6814)and leaf shape(H:1.1227,D:0.5484). Among the 16 quantitative traits,the single fruit mass coefficient of variation was the largest,being 61.32%;the fruit shape index coefficient of variation was the smallest,8.72%. The 96 plum germplasm resources were divided into 3 groups at the Euclidean distance of 22 according to cluster analysis,the first group could be used for selecting freestone and high resistant cultivars. Group II could be used for selecting high resistant and high yield cultivars;Group III could be used for selecting large fruit,high edible rate and freestone cultivars. Principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the first five principal components reached to 78.191%,such as fruit vertical diameter,fruit transverse diameter,and 1 year twig diameter and so on,which mainly reflect the fruit size and twig trait factors. Fruit traits contributed the most to the phenotypic trait variation of plum germplasm resources in cold area,followed by traits of 1 year twig. Combined to the correlation analysis results,16 quantitative traits could be simplified into seven main indicators:fruit vertical diameter,fruit transverse diameter,leaf width,kernel transverse diameter,fruit shape index and 1 year twig diameter,which improved the efficiency for evaluation and breeding selection of plum germplasm resources in northeast cold area.

Key words: plum, germplasm, cold area, phenotypic trait, genetic diversity

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