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园艺学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (4): 701-713.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0687

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

硅钙对日光温室黄瓜光合作用及产量和品质的影响

翟 江,高 原,张晓伟,韩鲁杰,毕焕改,李清明,艾希珍*   

  1. 山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院,作物生物学国家重点实验室,农业部黄淮地区园艺作物生物学与种质创制重点开放实验室,山东果蔬优质高效生产协同创新中心,山东泰安 271018
  • 出版日期:2019-04-25 发布日期:2019-04-25
  • 基金资助:

    山东省农业重大应用技术创新课题[鲁财农指〔2016〕36号];山东省重点研发计划项目(2017CXGC0206);山东省现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金项目(SDAIT-05-10);学院“双一流”奖补资金项目(SYL2017YSTD06)

Effects of Silicon and Calcium on Photosynthesis,Yield and Quality of Cucumber in Solar-greenhouse

ZHAI Jiang,GAO Yuan,ZHANG Xiaowei,HAN Lujie,BI Huangai,LI Qingming,and AI Xizhen*   

  1. College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology,Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Germplasm Innovation of Agriculture Ministry,Collaborative Innovation Center of Shandong Province with High Quality and Efficient Production of Fruit and Vegetable,Tai’an,Shandong 271018,China
  • Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-04-25

摘要:

为了探明硅和钙对黄瓜生长发育的调控机理,以‘津优35号’黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.‘Jinyou 35’)为试材,用盆栽基质培养方法,以不添加硅、钙为对照,研究单施硅(Si)、单施钙(Ca)和硅钙配施(Si + Ca)对黄瓜光合特性、产量及品质的影响。结果表明:Si、Ca和Si + Ca处理均能提高黄瓜叶片的净光合速率(Pn);Si处理的气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr)显著小于对照,Ca处理显著大于对照,Si + Ca处理与对照差异不显著;Ca和Si + Ca处理可使胞间CO2浓度(Ci)明显升高,而Si处理与对照差异不显著。与对照相比,Si、Ca和Si + Ca处理Rubisco活化酶(RCA)、果糖–1,6–二磷酸酶(FBPase)、景天庚酮糖–1,7–二磷酸酶(SBPase)、果糖–1,6–二磷酸醛缩酶(FBA)和转酮醇酶(TK)活性显著升高;Si + Ca处理的核酮糖–1,5–二磷酸羧化酶(RuBPCase)活性也明显升高,Si、Ca处理无显著变化。Si、Ca和Si + Ca处理的Rubisco大亚基(rbcL)和小亚基(rbcS)、RCA、FBP、SBP、FBA和TK mRNA相对表达量均显著大于对照。Si、Ca和Si + Ca处理叶片的暗适应下PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)无显著变化,但光下PSⅡ实际光化学效率(ΦPSII)均明显高于对照。Si、Ca和Si + Ca均可促进黄瓜植株生长,产量分别比对照增加11.75%、14.23%和21.28%,黄瓜果实的可溶性糖、蛋白质、游离氨基酸、维生素C含量显著升高,亚硝酸盐和单宁含量明显降低。可见,Si、Ca和Si + Ca可提高黄瓜叶片的Calvin循环关键酶活性与基因表达,增强光合碳同化能力,提高光化学效率,从而促进植株生长,产量和品质显著提高。3个处理相比,Si + Ca处理的光合能力最强,生长量最大,提质增产效果最佳。

关键词: 黄瓜, 硅, 钙, 光合酶, 产量, 品质, 番茄, 果色, 次生代谢途径, 调控机制

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to elucidate the regulating mechanism of silicon and calcium on the growth and development of cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.).‘Jinyou 35’cucumbers were used as experimental materials. We investigated the effect of single silicon(Si),calcium(Ca)and silicon combined with calcium(Si + Ca)on the photosynthetic characteristics,yield and quality of cucumber cultivated by substrate in pot,using the non-treated plants as the control. The results showed that Si,Ca and Si + Ca all increased the net photosynthetic rate(Pn)of cucumber leaves. We noticed that the stomatal conductance(Gs)and transpiration rate(Tr)of Si-treated leaves were significantly lower than the control,while Ca treatments were significantly higher than the control. However,there were no significant differences in Gs and Tr between the plants treated with Si + Ca and the control. Ca and Si + Ca led to an increase in the intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci),but Si-treated plants showed no obvious difference in Ci compared with the control. Si,Ca and Si + Ca improved the activities of Rubisco activase(RCA),fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase(FBPase),sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase(SBPase),fructose-1,6- bisphosphate aldolase(FBA)and transketolase(TK). Si + Ca also increased the activity of ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase(RuBPCase),whereas Si and Ca did not affect it. Si,Ca and Si + Ca treated plants also showed a distinct increase in mRNA abundance of Rubisco large-subunit(rbcL)and small-subunit(rbcS),RCA,FBP,SBP,FBA and TK,compared with the control. There was no significant differences in the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm)under dark adaptation in Si,Ca and Si + Ca treated leaves,but they showed significantly higher actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(ΦPSⅡ)than the control. Si,Ca and Si + Ca promoted plant growth,and their yield increased by 11.75%,14.23% and 21.28% respectively compared with the control,increased the content of soluble sugars,proteins,free amino acids and vitamin C,whereas decreased the nitrite and tannin contents significantly. These data suggest that Si,Ca and Si + Ca can improve the activities and mRNA expression of key enzymes in Calvin-cycle of cucumber leaves,strengthen the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity,and enhance the photochemical efficiency,consequently promote plant growth,yield and quality. Si + Ca treatment revealed the highest photosynthetic capacity,maximum growth,and the optimal quality and yield among treatments.

Key words: cucumber, silicon, calcium, photosynthetic enzyme, yield, quality, tomato, fruit color, secondary metabolic pathway, regulatory mechanism

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