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2020, Vol.47, No.1 Previous Issue    Next Issue

Research Papers

  • Analysis of Abscisic Acid Sensitivity of Apple Ethylene Response Factor MdERF11 Gene
  • WANG Jiahui,YU Jianqiang,ZHANG Quanyan,HAN Pengliang,YOU Chunxiang,HU Dagang*,and HAO Yujin
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 1-10. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0171
  • Abstract ( 245 ) PDF (1592KB) ( 463 )    
  • An ethylene response factor(GenBank accession number:MDP0000756341),named as MdERF11,was isolated from‘Gala’apple cultivar(Malus × domestica Borkh.),with a complete open reading frame(ORF)of 483 bp in length and encodes 161 amino acids. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the ethylene response factor exhibited the highest sequence similarity with Arabidopsis AtERF11. In silico analysis suggested that the promoter sequence of MdERF11 contained several typical cis-acting elements,including abscisic acid-,ethylene- and drought-responsive elements by using PlantCare Databases. qRT-PCR assays showed that MdERF11 constitutively expressed in different tissues of apple,with higher expression levels in petioles and fruits. The expression of MdERF11 was noticeably induced by exogenous abscisic acid(ABA). Furthermore,the growth potential of MdERF11-overexpressing apple calli were much stronger than that of wild-type apple calli under exogenous ABA condition,suggesting that MdERF11 reduces the sensitivity of apple callus to exogenous ABA.
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  • Effect of Tree-shape of‘Yuluxiang’Pear on Light Energy Interception and Photosynthetic Characteristics
  • YU Lu1,NIU Zimian1,*,LIN Lu1,**,JIANG Chuangdao2,**,WANG Hongning3,XIE Peng1,LI Zhiqiang1,and GUO Jinming4
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 11-22. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0146
  • Abstract ( 156 ) PDF (881KB) ( 309 )    
  • Effect of tree-shape on light energy interception and photosynthetic characteristics were elucidated in the Loess Plateau of China. In this study,four-year-old pears(Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. ‘Yuluxiang’)of small open-central canopy(SOC)and slender central-leader canopy(SCL)were compared carefully by analyzing light interception,gas exchange and fluorescence quenching. The results demonstrated that PAR values intercepted by SOC at different orientation and different o’clock during the day were higher than SCL(increased by 47.6% on average). Comparing to SCL,leaf maximum net photosynthetic rate(Pnmax,p)and light saturation point(LSP)of SOC were increased significantly. Among the three limiting factors in process of photosynthetic carbon assimilation,rate of triose-phosphate utilization(Vtpu)was the most sensitive one to the changes of light environment in canopy. Under high light stress,the ratio of photorespiratory rate to gross photosynthetic rate(Pr/Pg)of SOC was increased by 58.5% than that of SCL. Moreover,reversible component in NPQ[r(qE)] was increased by 8.9% while irreversible component in NPQ[r(qE)]was reduced by 75.0% in SOC than that in SCL. In summarize,tree-shape pruning could improve light environment in SOC,which in turn leads to the increased leaf photosynthetic performance and the enhanced photoprotective capacity via more effective thermal dissipation and photorespiration. Therefore,SOC is appropriate tree-shape for pear production in the Loess Plateau of China.
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  • Genome-wide Analysis of SAUR Gene Family in Citrus
  • WANG Fusheng1,2,YU Hong1,HU Zhou1,GUAN Delong3,ZHANG Pan1,ZHU Shiping1,2,and ZHAO Xiaochun1,2,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 23-40. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0581
  • Abstract ( 195 ) PDF (2407KB) ( 494 )    
  • Small auxin up-regulated RNA(SAUR)gene family plays a vital role in plant growth and development. In this study,a total of 70,69,58 and 62 SAUR homologous genes were identified from the genomes of Citrus clementina,C. medica,C. reticulata‘Mangshan’and C. maxima,respectively. Chromosomal location analysis revealed that the distribution of SAUR genes on chromosome is not uniform. Most of SAUR genes appeared as tandem duplication clustered on chromosome. The tandem duplication and segmental duplication could be the consequence of SAUR genes expansion. Most of citrus SAUR genes do not contain intron,and possess highly conserved four SAUR-specific motifs. The phylogenetic analysis displayed that 629 SAUR genes from 5 species were classified into 9 groups. In each group,the majority of species-specific SAUR genes have a close genetic relationship. cis-elements analysis revealed that light responsiveness,transcription factor(TF)binding,hormone responsiveness,wound responsiveness,low temperature responsiveness,zein metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis related elements exist in upstream sequences of CclSAUR genes. The results of qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of most of CclSAUR genes clearly responded to the exogenous IAA and cold temperature treatments. This study presented an overview information of constitution,structure and basic biological function of SAUR gene family in different citrus species.
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  • Effect of Exogenous Silicon on Seed Germination and Expression of Related Genes in Cucumber under Osmotic Stress
  • JIN Ning,Lü Jian*,YU Jihua*,XIE Jianming,JIN Li,ZHANG Guobin,and FENG Zhi
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 41-52. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0330
  • Abstract ( 141 ) PDF (894KB) ( 258 )    
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the mechanism involved in silicon mitigation of osmotic stress in cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.‘Xinchun 4’)seed germination and seedling growth.Four treatments including distilled water(Control),silicon treatment(Si),PEG-6000 simulated drought stress(PEG)and PEG-6000 + Silicon(PEG + Si)were applied. The results showed that compared with the control,10% PEG treatment significantly inhibited germination,seedling vigor,seedling length and fresh weight. Moreover,the contents of malondialdehyde(MDA),free proline(Pro)content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes increased under the sole PEG treatment. However,PEG + Si treatment significantly alleviated the osmotic stress in the cucumber seedlings. The PEG + Si treatment enhanced germination,increased seedling vigor,seedling length and fresh weight. Moreover,the activities of antioxidant enzymes of shoots were significantly greater than those of PEG treatment whiles the contents of MDA and Pro were significantly lower compared to the PEG treatment. The effect of sole Si treatment on germination,seedling vigor,seedling length,fresh weight,MDA content,Pro content and antioxidant enzyme activities was not significantly different from the control treatment. During cucumber seed germination,PEG treatment increased starch content but decreased the content of soluble sugar by down-regulating the Amylase(AMY)and β-amylase(BMY)gene expression levels at 36 h. However,the PEG + Si treatment significantly reduced starch content,increased soluble sugar content,α-amylase activity and β-amylase activity,and significantly up-regulated the expression levels of AMY and BMY genes at 36 h after treatment. The changes in starch content,soluble sugar content,α-amylase activity and β-amylase activity in the Si treated seedlings was not statistically different from the control seedlings. However,Si treatment significantly up-regulated BMY gene expression but did not affect the expression of AMY. It can be concluded that Si might alleviate the lipid peroxidation damage of cucumber seeds and accelerate the conversion of carbohydrates under drought stress by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities,starch hydrolase activity,reducing MDA accumulation,and up-regulating the AMY and BMY gene expression levels for promoting the germination of cucumber seeds.
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  • Mechanism Analysis of Fruit Size Regulating Genes CsSUN and CsLNG1 in Cucumber
  • XU Jing,PAN Yupeng,and CHENG Zhihui*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 53-62. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0363
  • Abstract ( 176 ) PDF (1662KB) ( 279 )    
  • Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) under the genetic background of Q30(CsSUN/CsLNG1),including QK1.2-S(Cssun / CsLNG1),QK2.1-S(CsSUN / Cslng1),QK1.2+2.1-S(Cssun/Cslng1),were used in this study. Morphological observation showed that fruits of Q30 are much slender than those of QK1.2-S and QK2.1-S. Besides,Q30 also had smaller stem diameter and higher plant height. Histological observation of fruits at different developmental stages indicated that the fruits of Q30 had the smallest cell size and the highest cell density when compared with QK1.2-S,QK2.1-S and QK1.2+2.1-S. Endogenous hormone test of fruits showed that the BR/ABA and GA3/ABA levels of Q30 were significantly lower than QK1.2-S,QK2.1-S and QK1.2+2.1-S at the stage of six-day before anthesis and this difference gradually decreased with the process of fruit development. While, no significant differences were found for ZT/ABA and IAA/ABA levels among these materials. At the stages of anthesis and six-day before anthesis,the relative expression of CsSUN in Q30 was significantly higher than that of QK1.2-S and QK1.2+2.1-S. The expression level of CsLNG1 in Q30 was also higher than that of QK1.2-S and QK1.2+2.1-S. However, the difference gradually reduced with the development and growth of fruit. At the early development stage,the expression levels of cell expansion related genes Csa1G422480(xyloglucan endotransglucosylase gene)and Csa6G014540(expanded protein gene),BR biosynthesis related gene Csa1G524640 and GA3 regulation involved gene Csa3G872170 were significantly lower in Q30 when compared with QK1.2-S,QK2.1-S and QK1.2+2.1-S. However,the expression levels of Csa1G422480,Csa6G014540,Csa1G524640 and Csa3G872170 in Q30 were gradually increased as the growth of fruit,and even significantly higher than QK1.2-S,QK2.1-S and QK1.2+2.1-S at the later stages. In summary,the slender fruits of Q30 are due to the inhibitory effect of CsSUN and CsLNG1 on fruit cell enlargement in the early stage,which resulted smaller cell size and higher cell density. When fruit development reaches to the rapid growth period,the inhibitory effect of these two genes on cell size is weakened,and the fruit cells gradually expand,which promotes the rapid growth of fruit size.
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  • Homozygous Mutant Construction and Function Analysis of TCP Transcription Factor StBRC1a in Diploid Potato
  • FENG Shuangshuang1,2,LUO Jiayi1,2,ZHU Xijian2,4,JIANG Jibin2,4,HUANG Sanwen1,3,*,and ZHANG Jinzhe2,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 63-72. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0275
  • Abstract ( 113 ) PDF (1657KB) ( 234 )    
  • Branching is crucial for plant shoot morphogenesis and crop yield. It’s reported that TCP transcription factor play an important role in regulating branching. However, related study in diploid potato remains largely unknown. In order to illustrate the function of TCP transcription factor StBRC1a in diploid potato,we cloned StBRC1a in diploid potato Solanum tuberosum group phureja S15-65 and found that StBRC1a had two transcripts with different length named StBRC1aL and StBRC1aS. Sequence analysis revealed that StBRC1aL and StBRC1aS both had a 59-amino acid basic helix–loop–helix(bHLH)motif and an R domain. By constructing phylogenetic tree,it’s found that StBRC1aL and StBRC1aS had the closest relationship with SlBRC1a,which indicated it belonged to CYC/TB1-like TCP transcription factor. Tissue specific expression analysis showed that StBRC1aL and StBRC1aS were highly expressed in axillary buds. We constructed a StBRC1a homozygous mutant by CRISPR/Cas9 system. Compared with wild type,the mutant showed significantly increased branching,which demonstrated that StBRC1a played an important role in branching for diploid potatoes.
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  • Changes of Sensory Characteristic and Volatiles of Harvested Flowers of Chimonanthus praecox During Spreading Process
  • LU Anxia1,ZHOU Xinru1,YE Yulong1,2,LI Xiaolian1,XIE Guanhua1,WANG Bei1,and TONG Huarong1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 73-84. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0233
  • Abstract ( 143 ) PDF (1162KB) ( 282 )    
  • The aromatic volatiles from Chimonanthus praecox(L.)flowers are very pleasant to be the human sensory system and have a potential application as components of perfumes. In order to determine the dynamic changes of sensory characteristics and volatiles of harvested flowers of Chimonanthus praecox(L.)during spreading process,sensory evaluation and headspace-solid phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry(HS–SPME–GC–MS)were applied. The results showed that no obvious change in the blooming state of the harvested flowers was observed during the spreading process. After the cut-flower were harvested and cultured in water,it took approximately 32 h from bud to full-blossom state. The amount of volatiles in full-blossom flower increased firstly and then decreased with the prolongation of the spreading time. Ketones,aldehydes and phenols appeared after 12 h of spreading. Relative content of most volatiles decreased after 20 h of spreading. Benzyl acetate reached the maximum at 12 h,and increased by 35.04% compared with that at 0 h;4-ethylbenzyl alcohol and α-ocimene increased at first and then decreased;α-ocimene increased sharply at 4 h and reached the maximum at 20 h;the linalool,allo-ocimene and 2,6-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatriene showed a decreasing trend within 24 h after spreeding,and decreased by 18.32%,78.92% and 41.19% respectively,compared with that at 0 h. In combination with the sensory evaluation and HS–SPME–GC–MS,the full-blossom flowers of Chimonanthus praecox(L.)maintained the freshness and richness of the floral fragrance within 20 h after harvested,and the aromatic compounds were rich between 12–20 h,the volatile substances with floral and fruity aroma were relatively high at this stage. This paper has systematically studied the dynamic changes of sensory characteristic and volatiles of harvested flowers of Chimonanthus praecox(L.)during spreading process,which is considered to be theoretical references for the application of Chimonanthus praecox(L.)flowers as fragrance-enhancing material.
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  • Cloning and Expression Analysis of AP2/ERF Family Gene from Phalaenopsis Under Low Temperature
  • CUI Bo1,*,HAO Ping’an2,LIANG Fang1,ZHANG Yan1,WANG Ximeng1,4,LI Junlin1,3,JIANG Suhua1,and XU Shenping1
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 85-97. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0091
  • Abstract ( 157 ) PDF (1184KB) ( 289 )    
  • In this study,four AP2/ERF family genes named PhAP2/ERF1–PhAP2/ERF4 were cloned from the leaves of the Phalaenopsis‘Big Chili’by RT-PCR. Each PhAP2/ERF1–PhAP2/ERF4 contained an AP2 domain whereas the PhAP2/ERF2 also contained a B3 domain. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PhAP2/ERF1–PhAP2/ERF4 was closely related to members of AP2/ERF family in Orchidaceae. In addition,we found that the PhAP2/ERF1 belonged to the A1 group of DREB subfamily in AP2/ERF family,PhAP2/ERF2 belonged to RAV subfamily,PhAP2/ERF3 belonged to the B4 group of ERF subfamily,and PhAP2/ERF4 belonged to the A2 group of DREB subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to investigate the expression levels of PhAP2/ERF1–PhAP2/ERF4 in the leaves of Phalaenopsis‘Big Chili’and Phalaenopsis‘Fuller’s Sunset’under low temperature acclimation and low temperature stress. The results showed that the expression of four PhAP2/ERF genes have the same trend in leaves of‘Big chili’,with the highest level at the early stage and decreased slightly at the middle and late stages after low temperature stress treatment. However,the expression levels of four PhAP2/ERF genes showed the significant differences trends in the leaves of Phalaenopsis‘Fuller’s Sunset’. The expression levels of PhAP2/ERF1 and PhAP2/ERF2 were not induced or increased slightly during the low temperature treatment. Moreover,the response time of PhAP2/ERF3 in leaves of Phalaenopsis‘Fuller’s Sunset’noticeably lagged behind that of Phalaenopsis‘Big Chili’under low temperature. There was little difference of PhAP2/ERF4 between Phalaenopsis‘Fuller’s Sunset’and Phalaenopsis‘Big Chili’. The difference in the expression of AP2/ERFs in the leaves between cold- resistant variety Phalaenopsis‘Big chili’and nonresistant variety Phalaenopsis‘Fuller’s Sunset’suggested that the AP2/ERF gene family of Phalaenopsis hybrida plays an important role in the regulation of low temperature stress response in Phalaenopsis species.
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Research Notes

  • Development of Insertion-Deletion(InDel)Markers Based on Whole- genome Sequencing Data in Chinese Cherry and Their Transferability in Rosaceae Fruit Trees
  • WANG Jue1,*,WANG Yan1,2,*,ZHANG Jing2,CHEN Tao1,3,WANG Lei2,CHEN Qing1,TANG Haoru1,2,and WANG Xiaorong1,2,**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 98-110. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0062
  • Abstract ( 141 ) PDF (1313KB) ( 238 )    
  • The De novo whole-genome sequencing data of cultivated and wild Chinese cherry [Cerasus pseudocerasus(Lindl.)G. Don]were applied to identify 50 617 InDel markers,and 200 markers with uniform distribution across the genome were selected to be evaluated. Twenty-seven polymorphic markers were identified,which accounted for 13.5% of screened markers. Among 192(168 cultivated and 24 wild)Chinese cherry accessions,a total of 60 allelic loci were detected using the 27 polymorphic markers,which meant that per marker corresponded to 2.2 allelic loci on average,with an average gene diversity(Hs)of 0.239(ranging from 0.010 to 0.500)and mean polymorphic information content(PIC)of 0.198(ranging from 0.010 to 0.375),indicating a relatively low genetic diversity. Population structure analysis and geographical location revealed five groups within Chinese cherry,which consisted of cultivated Chinese cherry in East and North China Plain,Qinling Mountains,Sichuan Basin,and Yun-Gui Plateau,and wild ones. Thirty-four of 200 InDel markers showed moderate transferability rate among 156 individuals from eight genera including Cerasus,Prunus,Amygdalus,Armeniaca,Pyrus,Malus,Fragaria,and Rubus of the subfamilies Prunoideae,Maloideae,and Rosoideae in the family Rosaceae with important economic values. The polymorphism of InDel markers were higher with the increasing relationships between species and Chinese cherry.
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  • Establishment and Optimization of Valencia Sweet Orange in planta Transformation System
  • XIE Xingnan*,YANG Li*,LIU Fan,TIAN Na,CHE Jingru,JIN Sanpeng,ZHANG Yongyan**,and CHENG Chunzhen**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 111-119. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0130
  • Abstract ( 210 ) PDF (2243KB) ( 281 )    
  • By using the Valencia sweet orange(Citrus sinensis‘Valencia’)seedlings as plant materials,the in planta transformation system was established and optimized. The influence of infection sites on in planta transformation efficiency was firstly investigated. Agrobacterium carrying the PBI121 vector was used to infect the epicotyl incision or apical bud incision(with/without true leaves)of the 5-week-old Valencia sweet orange seedling for 2 times. After three days’ co-culture,resistance screening and dark treatments were performed. Seven weeks later,leaf DNA of the candidate transgenic plants was isolated and was used as template for PCR detection to calculate the transformation rate. The effect of different seedling ages on the in planta transformation efficiency was further studied by using the epicotyl incision as the infection site. Results showed that the regeneration rate of 5-week-old seedling epicotyl incision was 93.10%,and the transformation rate was 20.68%. The apical bud regeneration rate for with/without true leaf was 81.74% or 94.55%,and the transformation rate was 19.09% or 17.82%. The regeneration rates of 4- and 6-week-old Valencia sweet orange seedling epicotyl incisions were 94.59% and 91.50%,respectively,and the transformation rates were 25.42% and 19.36%,respectively. By infecting the epicotyl incision of 4-week-old Valencia sweet orange seedlings,high in planta transformation rate could be obtained. The in planta transformation method is easier to be applied,less time consuming and more efficient. Thus,it is of great potential to be applied in sweet orange genetic breeding.
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  • RT-PCR Detection and Sequence Analysis of Coat Protein Gene of Actinidia virus 1 from Sichuan Province
  • PENG Qiding,Lü Rui,YANG Ting,LIN Honghui,and XI Dehui*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 120-126. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0166
  • Abstract ( 101 ) PDF (1407KB) ( 241 )    
  • Recently,a new virus that infected kiwifruit,Actinidia virus 1(AcV-1),has been reported in New Zealand. In order to determine the occurrence and molecular characterization of AcV-1 in kiwifruit cultivars(‘Hongyang’and‘Jinguo’)in Sichuan Province,90 kiwifruit leaves samples of suspected viral infection were tested for AcV-1 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The results showed that 22 samples were positive to AcV-1,and the infection rate was 24.4%. The coat protein gene(CP)sequences of the obtained five AcV-1 isolates were compared with isolate K75 which was reported in New Zealand. Results showed that the sequences identities of CP nucleotides and amino acid among these isolates were 84.8%–97.1% and 89.7%–99.6%,respectively. Among them,the sequence identities of CP nucleotides were less than 91% between New Zealand isolate K75 and four of these isolates except Qionglai isolate HYH5,which was 97.1%. Phylogenetic analysis based on CP gene of each isolate showed that these isolates were mainly clustered into three branches,HYH5 and New Zealand isolate K75 were located in the same branch,and the other isolates were located in the other two branches.
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  • Identification and Expression Analysis of CIPK Gene Family in Strawberry
  • LIU Tao,WANG Pingping,HE Honghong,LIANG Guoping,LU Shixiong,CHEN Baihong,and MAO Juan*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 127-142. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0219
  • Abstract ( 232 ) PDF (2601KB) ( 442 )    
  • The Arabidopsis CIPK gene family registration numbers were obtained from the Database,and 19 CIPK gene family members were obtained from the Fragaria vesca database by bioinformatics analysis,which were divided into six subfamilies:A–E. The six subfamilies were distributed on 6 of the 7 chromosomes of strawberry. By analyzing physicochemical properties,we found that the number of encoded amino acids is ranged from 157 to 1 196,the theoretical isoelectric point is covered from 3.91 to 9.34 and the molecular weight is distributed from 18 667.68 to 133 714.31 D. Meanwhile,there are 11 genes that have only one exon,the others have 2–15 exons through genes structure analysis. The CIPK gene family were mainly expressed on the cytoplasm,nucleus and chloroplast during subcellular localization analysis of the gene family members. Moreover,the prediction of secondary structure indicated that the members of the gene family mainly consisted of α-helix,β-turn and irregular curl. Additionally,analysis of the cis-acting element of the upstream 2 kb promoter sequence found that the members of the gene family contained stress response MYB element. Except for FvCIPK02,FvCIPK15 and FvCIPK17,all genes contained the abscisic acid(ABA)response element(ABRE). The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the FvCIPK16,FvCIPK10 and FvCIPK09 had the highest expression under PEG,ABA and NaCl,respectively,about 18.4 times,29 times and 13 times more than the control,which indicated that FvCIPK16 responded strongly to drought stress,FvCIPK10 strongly responded to ABA induction,and FvCIPK09 strongly responded to high salt stress. In addition,the relative expression of FvCIPK03 was down-regulated under each treatment,then we can speculate that FvCIPK03 play a negative regulatory role in plant stress.
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  • Cloning and Expression Profiles Analysis of AgHAT4 Gene in Apium graveolens
  • YIN Lian1,LIU Jiexia1,CHEN Longzheng2,SHEN Di1,DUAN Aoqi1,FENG Kai1,XU Zhisheng1,and XIONG Aisheng1,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 143-152. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0306
  • Abstract ( 114 ) PDF (1388KB) ( 208 )    
  • The transcription factor gene,AgHAT4,was cloned from two celery varieties of‘Liuhe Huangxinqin’and‘Ventura’,respectively. The amino acid composition,protein structure,physicochemical characterizations,and phylogenetic tree were analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Results showed that AgHAT4 contains an open reading frame(ORF)with the length of 900 bp,encoding 299 amino acids. One nucleotide site of AgHAT4 and an amino acid residue were different between the two celery varieties. The relative molecular weights of AgHAT4 protein of‘Liuhe Huangxinqin’and‘Ventura’were 33.71 kD and 33.68 kD respectively,with theoretical pI both about 9.12. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the HAT4 proteins in celery and carrot belonged to the same branch. Protein structure prediction indicated that AgHAT4 protein was mainly composed of three α-helixes and some random coils,and no signal peptide was there. It was detected that AgHAT4 gene was most highly expressed in the petiole,followed by the root and lowest in the leaf blade by real-time quantitative PCR. The results also showed that multiple abiotic stresses induced the expression levels of AgHAT4 in celery. Compared with the control group,the expression levels of AgHAT4 in‘Liuhe Huangxinqin’up-regulated at 24 h under high temperature treatment. The expression response of AgHAT4 to salt stress in‘Ventura’was similar to that in‘Liuhe Huangxinqin’. The transcription levels of AgHAT4 increased first and then decreased in general,which reached the peak after 2 h of treatment. In ‘Ventura’,the expression of AgHAT4 exhibited the highest at 4 h under high temperature treatment,and it exhibited the highest expression at 2 h of low temperature treatment.
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  • Preliminary Characterization of the Subcellular Localization of NIa-Pro Protein Encoded by Clover yellow vein virus from Broad Bean
  • TU Liqin1,2,*,WU Shuhua1,*,ZHAO Wenhao1,FAN Xiaoyan1,GAN Shexiang1,CUI Xiaoyan3,CHENG Zhaobang1,CHEN Xin3,ZHU Yuelin2,ZHOU Yijun1,and JI Yinghua1,**
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 153-160. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0255
  • Abstract ( 116 ) PDF (1294KB) ( 191 )    
  • Clover yellow vein virus(ClYVV)is an important member of the genus of Potyvirus. As Nuclear Inclusion a Protease(NIa-Pro)is one of the most important viral-encoded proteases,it also plays an essential role in the process of most functional mature proteins generation during virus and host interaction. In this study,the NIa-Pro gene of a broad bean isolate of ClYVV,collected from Jiangsu Province in 2018,was cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis results showed that the NIa-Pro gene was 729 bp in length and encoded a 24.3 kD protein. To clarify the subcellular localization of NIa-Pro encoded by ClYVV,we transiently expressed NIa-Pro fused to YFP under the control of the 35S promoter(YFP-NIa-Pro)in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by Agrobacterium infiltration. The results of laser scanning confocal microscope showed that strong fluorescence signals were observed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of epidermal cells of N. benthamiana leaves. The expression of NIa-Pro(YFP-NIa-Pro)in N. benthamiana leaves was further confirmed by Western-blot. These results showed that the NIa-Pro encoded by ClYVV localized in cytoplasm and nucleus.
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  • Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cm2S,a Gene Related to Embryo Development in Chrysanthemum
  • XU Sujuan1,2,WU Ze1,2,ZHAO Jingya1,2,HOU Huizhong1,2,CHEN Fadi1,and TENG Nianjun1,2,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 161-168. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0135
  • Abstract ( 131 ) PDF (1328KB) ( 271 )    
  • Based on the analysis of transcriptome and proteome data of embryos in the hybridization of Chrysanthemum morifolium var.‘Yuhualuoying’× tetraploid C. nankingense,a gene named Cm2S was identified that could express differentially in different stages of embryo development. Cm2S was isolated from normal embryos of‘Yuhualuoying’by a high-fidelity PCR,and the Open Reading Frame(ORF)length of Cm2S was 852 bp,encoding a protein of 283 amino acids. The SMART online website was used to predict the functional structural domains of Cm2S protein,the results showed that Cm2S protein belongs to the AAI_LTSS family and it has two conservative AAI(alpha-amylase Inhibitors)structural domains. Homology comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Cm2S had the highest genetic relationship with AaSSP6 in Artemisia annua. The result of subcellular localization showed that Cm2S was located in cytoplasm and nucleus. Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR)showed that Cm2S was specifically expressed in embryos,and the expression level in normal embryos at 18 days after pollination was significantly higher than that in the other two samples. It was 315.11 times of that in normal embryos at 12 days after pollination while 1.98 times of that in abortion embryos at 18 days,respectively.

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  • Identification and Biological Characteristics of Pathogen Causing Leaf Spot Disease of Hemerocallis fulva
  • GAO Jin1,ZENG Guiping1,SONG Lisha1,ZHAO Zhi1,2,and LI Zhong1,2,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 169-178. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0343
  • Abstract ( 131 ) PDF (3586KB) ( 248 )    
  • To clarify the pathogen causing leaf spots of Hemerocallis fulva in Guizhou Province and its biological characteristic,the pathogen was obtained by using the method of tissue isolation. Its pathogenicity was tested in vitro inoculated leaves,and the pathogen was classified and identified with morphology and ITS gene sequence analyse,the biological characteristic of pathogen were also studied. The results showed that the strain isolated from leaf brown spots of Hemerocallis fulva was numbered as XCS369,its main diagnostic feature were as followed:the mycelia was grayish white and villous,colony center ridge is taupe,back olive green,and the back of colonies were olive green. After 15 days of cultivation,it could produce white sporangium powder. Its smooth and colorless conidia appeared elliptical or oblong. The phylogenetic tree based on ITS gene sequence showed that XCS369 strain was clustered together with Xylaria cubensis,supported by 99%. Together with the morphology characteristics and phylogenetic analysis,it was identified as one member of Xylaria cubensis. The research of biological characteristics showed that the mycelia of XCS369 strain grew faster on potato dextrose medium of pH 7 and had the highest utilization of carbon source maltose and niteogen source yeast extract powder at 25–28 ℃,and it was insensitive to light.
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  • A New Disease of Camellia japonica Caused by Phyllosticta capitalensis—The“Green Island Type”Leaf Spot
  • HE Meixian1,SUN Zhanbin2,*,and MIAO Zuoqing3,*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 179-186. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0229
  • Abstract ( 90 ) PDF (2307KB) ( 175 )    
  • A new leaf spot disease of Camellia was found in Jinhua Camellia Planting Garden,Zhejiang Province in 2016,the disease was named“green island type”leaf spot. Collection of diseased leaves,isolation and purification of pathogen,morphological characteristics,pathogenicity test and the sequence analysis of rDNA-ITS were used to confirm the pathogen of causing leaf spot. The results show that,the symptoms of artificial inoculation are in accordance with the symptoms in the field. Pathogen’s pycnidia are sphaeroid with ostiole,conidia are mostly pyriform,and usually covered by a slime layer and bearing a single apical appendage. The morphology of pycnidia and conidia is conforming to Phyllosticta. Homology comparison between the rDNA-ITS sequence of the pathogen to be tested and the related strains in the NCBI Databases was analysed. The homology was 99% between the pathogen and Phyllosticta capitalensis. The results indicated that Phyllosticta capitalensis was the pathogen of “green island type”leaf spot.
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New Technologies and New Methods

  • Establishment and Application of a Real-time Fluorescent Quantitative RT-PCR for Detection of Grapevine fabavirus
  • ZHANG Mengyan,ZHANG Zunping,REN Fang,HU Guojun,FAN Xudong*,and DONG Yafeng*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 187-194. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0216
  • Abstract ( 148 ) PDF (1370KB) ( 237 )    
  • A SYBR GreenⅠRT-qPCR method for GFabV detection was established,an excellent linear correlation(0.998)and amplification efficiency(103.8%)were obtained from standard curve. The sensitivity of the method was 1 000 times higher than conventional RT-PCR,and had a strong specificity. The established RT-qPCR and conventional RT-PCR were used to detect GFabV in 316 grapevine samples from different development stages and different positions,and the results showed that the detection rate of RT-qPCR(96.8%)was apparently higher than conventional RT-PCR(70.8%). The detection rate of dormant branches using RT-qPCR was 100%,and for other positions detection were all above 92%,which were apparently higher than conventional RT-PCR(42%–97%). The detection rates using RT-qPCR(85%–95%)were higher than conventional RT-PCR(70%–90%)in these samples from different development stages. Compared with conventional RT-PCR,the newly established RT-qPCR has obvious superiority in detection of various samples.
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New Cultivars

  • A New Apple Dwarfing Rootstock Cultivar‘Jizhen 1’
  • ZHANG Xueying,LI Zhongyong,SHAO Jianzhu,CHEN Haijiang,and XU Jizhong*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 195-196. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0738
  • Abstract ( 133 ) PDF (207KB) ( 193 )    
  • ‘Jizhen 1’is a new apple dwarfing rootstock cultivar selected from the seedling progenies of‘SH40’. It had a good grafting affinity with rootstock and cultivar,the survival rate is over 90%. Grafting on the inter-rootstock of Fuji apple tree‘Tianhong 2’will flower in the next year,the flowering plant rate can reach 70%. The average height of the 4 years old tree is 2.56 m,and the yield can reach 27 000 kg ? hm-2. The yield can be maintained at 45 000–52 500 kg ? hm-2 in high yield year. The average fruit weight is 221.9 g,the hardness is 8.67 kg ? cm-2,and the soluble solids content is 14.5%–16.5%,which is suitable for application in the south-central part of Hebei Province or in similar climate areas.
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  • A New Watermelon Cultivar‘Sumeng 7’
  • SUN Yudong,ZHANG Chaoyang,XU Binghua,GU Yan,and ZHANG Xingping*
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 197-198. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0783
  • Abstract ( 99 ) PDF (875KB) ( 153 )    
  • ‘Sumeng 7’is a new watermelon hybrid with early maturity and small fruit. The fruit is globe shaped with dark green skin and black green stripes. The durable rind is only 0.50 cm in thickness. The red flesh is crisp and the brix at center is 12.7%. The total growing period is about 105 d and the fruit development period is about 30 d after pollination in early spring. The average fruit weight is 2.45 kg and the yield is 33 900 kg ? hm-2. This cultivar is suitable for protected cultivation in spring in Jiangsu.
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  • A New Rosa Cultivar‘Jinyan’
  • WANG Lihua1,DUAN Jinhui2,*,LI Qingyun2,DUAN Yunsheng2,XUE Zuwang2,and FAN Rongxu2
  • Acta Horticulturae Sinica. 2020, 47(1): 199-200. DOI:10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0759
  • Abstract ( 82 ) PDF (1348KB) ( 193 )    
  • ‘Jinyan’is a new cut rose cultivar,selected from mutation of modern rose cultivar ‘Jinhui’. The flower is large cup-shaped with double petal in orange-pink,its flower diameter is 10–13 cm,the length of uniform flowering branch is 80–100 cm.‘Jinyan’has strong growth potential and high production. The yield of cut flower is 12–15 branches/plant per year in greenhouse.
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