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园艺学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 311-320.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2014-0811

• 观赏植物 • 上一篇    下一篇

珍稀濒危植物掌叶木的开花生物学特性与繁育系统

李在留,李雪萍,郭松,闫湘,李磊,包满珠   

  1. 1广西大学林学院,南宁 530004;2河南科技大学林学院,河南洛阳 471003;3南京林业大学,江苏省林业生态工程重点实验室,南京 210037;4华中农业大学园艺林学学院,武汉 430070
  • 出版日期:2015-02-25 发布日期:2015-02-25
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31060053);广西自然科学基金项目(2011GXNSFB018016);河南省自然科学基金项目(62580021)

Flowering Biology and Breeding System of the Rare and Endangered Plant Handeliodendron bodinieri

LI Zai-liu1,4,LI Xue-ping2,GUO Song1,3,YAN Xiang1,LI Lei1,and BAO Man-zhu4,*   

  1. 1College of Forestry,Guangxi University,Nanning 530004,China;2College of Forestry,Henan University of Sience and Technology,Luoyang,Henan 471003,China;3Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Forestry Ecological Engineering,Nanjing Forestry University,Nanjing 210037,China;4College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences,Huazhong Agricultural University,Wuhan 430070,China
  • Online:2015-02-25 Published:2015-02-25

摘要: 通过野外观察、杂交指数估算、授粉特性分析及人工控制授粉试验等方法对珍稀濒危植物掌叶木(Handeliodendron bodinieri)开花生物学特性和繁育系统进行研究。结果表明:(1)掌叶木每年开花1次,花期在4月下旬到5月中下旬,开花的起止时间及花期的长短受当地气候影响较大;(2)花多为假两性花,即形态上为雌、雄蕊完整的两性花,而功能上为雌、雄蕊选择性败育形成的单性花,偶见雌、雄蕊可育的真两性花植株;单性花通常雌、雄异株,且雌株较雄株少,花序较雄株短5.6 cm,花期也较雄株短2周左右,雄株花序上偶尔见雌花单花;(3)单花经历萌动、露白、展开、盛开、凋落5个阶段,历时5 ~ 6 d;雄花从萌动到开花1 d的花粉活力高达90.5%,开花2 d后活力显著下降;雌花柱头在展开前部分具可授性,展开后1 ~ 3 d均具可授性,花粉活力与柱头可授性重叠;(4)雄花单花花粉量为51 461个,雌花单花胚珠数6,花粉胚珠比(P/O)为8 577,杂交指数为4,结合人工授粉、套袋、套网和自然授粉坐果率判断,掌叶木繁育系统为专性异交,传粉过程需要传粉者,可能存在无融合生殖。(5)掌叶木花性别分化复杂,可孕花数量较不孕花少,可育雌、雄蕊存在较大的空间隔离,加之不稳定的传粉环境,可能是其濒危的重要生殖生物学原因。

关键词: 掌叶木, 开花生物学, 繁育系统, 花性别

Abstract: To understand the endangered mechanism of the rare and endangered plant Handeliodendron bodinieri,flowering biology and breeding system were studied by using field investigation,out-crossing index estimation,pollination characteristics analysis and artificial pollination experiments. The main results were as follows:(1)H. bodinieri bloomed once a year and blooming time lasted from late April tomid-to-late May. The starting date of flowering or withering and the duration of blooming time was greatly influenced by local climate.(2)Most flowers of H. bodinieri were pseudo-bisexual flowers,which meant they were morphologyical bisexual flower with pistil and stamen,but functional unisexual flower that either pistil or stamen selective abortion during sex determination. It was rarely observed bisexual flowers with fertile pistil and stamen. Pseudo-bisexual flowers and bisexual flowers appeared on different trees. The unisexual flowers usually were dioecious. The number of female trees was smaller than that of male trees. The length of inflorescences in female tree was 5.6cm shorter than that of male trees. The duration of blooming time in female tree was 2 weeks shorter than that of male trees. It was occasionally observed female flowers on male trees.(3)The flowering process followed five stages from flower buds sprouting,white appearing,petal spreading,fully blooming to flowers withering,which took 5–6 days. The viability of pollen in male flowers was 90.5% from sprouting to 1 day after blooming,however,it descended greatly after 2 days of blooming. Some of stigmas of the female flowers were receptivity before opening while all stigmas were receptive for 1–3 days after petal fully opened. So the life span of pollen viability and stigmas receptivity were overlapped.(4)Each male flower had 51 461 pollens and each female flower had 6 ovules. The ratio of pollen to ovule(P/O)was 8 577,and the outcrossing index was 4. Taking all the results together of artificial pollination,bagged,netted and free pollination experiments,it indicates that H. bodinieri breeding system belongs to obligate outcrossing,apomixes may exist and pollinators are necessary for the pollination process.(5)Sex determination of flowers in H. bodinieri was complicated. The major factors leading to the endangered status of H. bodinieri in reproduction may include the limited fertile flowers and the large spatial isolation of female and male flowers as well as the unstable pollination environment.

Key words: Handeliodendron bodinieri, flowering biology, breeding system, floral sexuality

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