园艺学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (3): 492-502.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2019-0651

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. 湖南师范大学生命科学学院,长沙 410081
  • 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-03-25
  • 基金资助:

Studies on Floral Syndrome and Breeding System of Primulina hunanensis

LI Shuaijie and CAI Xiuzhen*   

  1. College of Life Sciences,Hunan Normal University,Changsha 410081,China
  • Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-03-25

摘要: 为揭示湖南报春苣苔(Primulina hunanensis)花部特征和繁育系统对有性繁殖过程的影响,合理开发利用其野生种质资源,对其开花物候、花部特征以及访花昆虫类型进行了野外定点观测,测量和分析了花粉活力及柱头可授性、花粉胚珠比值、杂交指数,并结合人工辅助授粉试验对其繁育系统进行了检测。结果表明,(1)湖南报春苣苔花期在 5—7 月,长约 40 d,单花周期 3 ? 8 d;雌雄异熟,开放当天花粉活力最强(> 90%),柱头无活性;雌雄异位,开放后雄蕊几乎不再生长,而雌蕊继续伸长。(2)花粉胚珠比值为 518.36,杂交指数为 5,繁育系统以异交为主,部分自交亲和,需要传粉者;去雄不授粉套袋结实率为 0,不存在无融合生殖。(3)开花期间存在多种传粉者,熊蜂与其花部特征相适应,为最有效传粉者。(4)自然状态下结实率较高;存在无性繁殖,作为生殖补偿机制维持种群的数量。

关键词: 湖南报春苣苔, 传粉生物学, 繁育系统, 花部特征, 熊蜂

Abstract: For rational development and utilization of the wild germplasm resources of Primulina hunanensis,the role of the floral syndrome and breeding system on its sexual reproduction process was evaluated. The flowering phenology,floral features,and flower-visiting insects of P. hunanensis were recorded by field observation. We analyzed pollen viability and stigma receptivity,pollen/ovule ratio,and hybridization index,combined with artificial pollination experiment to test its breeding system. The result showed:(1) P. hunanensis flowered from May to July,with a flowering period of about 40 d and a single flowering cycle of 3–8 d. When the flowers were just open,the pollen was the most energetic(> 90%)in the flowering period,and the stigma was inactive,indicated that pistil and stamens of P. hunanensismatured at different times. After flowering,the growth of the stamens of P. hunanensis almost stopped,but its pistil continued to elongate,indicating that the pistils and stamens had different spatial positions. (2) The ratio of pollen and ovule was 518.36. The hybridization index was 5,indicating the breeding system of P. hunanensis was outcrossing,partial self-compatibility and demanded pollinators. The seed setting rate of P. hunanensis was not 0,and there was no apomixis in the bagged and emasculation experiment. (3) Many kinds of flower-visiting insects were surveyed in the P. hunanensis population. During the flowering period,Bombus sp. was the most effective pollinator which was adapted to its floral syndrome. (4) Under field condition,the fruit setting rate of P. hunanensis was higher. Asexual reproduction occurred in the population of P. hunanensis,maintaining the population as a reproductive compensation mechanism.

Key words: Primulina hunanensis, pollination biology, breeding system, floral syndrome, Bombus sp.