园艺学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (12): 2427-2436.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0271

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


张超越,郭绍芬,孙 晴,张桂芝,许俊杰*,刘 林*   

  1. 临沂大学药学院,山东临沂 276005
  • 出版日期:2018-12-25 发布日期:2018-12-25
  • 基金资助:

Embryological Characterization of Apricot Pollen and Anther Wall Development

ZHANG Chaoyue,GUO Shaofen,SUN Qing,ZHANG Guizhi,XU Junjie*,and LIU Lin*   

  1. College of Pharmacy,Linyi University,Linyi,Shandong 276005,China
  • Online:2018-12-25 Published:2018-12-25

摘要: 为了解杏花药和花粉发育的主要特征及发育进程与花芽冬眠的关系,对不同发育阶段的花药和花粉进行了显微观察。结果表明,花药壁形成于11月上旬,由5层细胞构成,包括表皮、药室内壁、中层(含2层细胞)和绒毡层(分泌型)。小孢子母细胞形成于11月上旬,减数分裂完成于2月上旬,即小孢子发生过程历时约3个月。减数分裂开始时小孢子母细胞积累大量脂滴,减数分裂产生的4个小孢子在四分体内排列成四面体形。小孢子阶段约1个月,2–细胞花粉阶段约0.5个月,即雄配子体发育历时约1.5个月。3月初花蕾与芽鳞等长时小孢子发生有丝分裂产生2–细胞花粉。成熟花粉为2–细胞型,含脂滴而不含淀粉,属脂质花粉。小孢子母细胞形成时花芽开始冬眠,减数分裂完成时花芽结束冬眠,即小孢子发生与花芽冬眠同步。杏花粉发育历时4.5个月,其特征包括小孢子母细胞减数分裂时积累脂滴,小孢子发生与花芽冬眠同步,花蕾与芽鳞等长是雄配子体发生第一次有丝分裂的形态学标志。

关键词: 杏, 花粉, 花药壁, 胚胎学

Abstract: In order to understand the embryological features of the pollen and anther wall of apricot,anthers of different ages were examined by means of light microscopy. The cell layers of anther wall were established in early November,including epidermis,endothecium,middle layers,and tapetum. The tapetum belonged to secretory type. The process of microsporogenesis lasted about 3 months. Microspore mother cells were formed in early November,and underwent meiosis during the period from late January to early February the next year. The microspore mother cell accumulated a large number of lipid droplets as meiosis began. The 4 meiotic nuclei were separated by simultaneous cytokinesis to form four microspores that were joined together in a tetrad. The four microspores in the tetrad were in a tetrahedral arrangement. The microspore was present for about one month before it underwent mitotic division to a 2-celled pollen grain. The 2-celled pollen stage lasted 2–3 weeks till anthesis. The mature pollen belonged to lipidic type,for it accumulated lipid droplets rather than starch. As the structure of anther walls was established,the scaly buds started winter dormancy,i.e.,they stopped elongation temporarily. When the meiosis of the microspore mother cell was completed,the winter dormancy was broken,i.e.,the scaly buds resumed elongation. Apparently,there was a coincidence between the mcirosporogenesis in the anther and the winter dormancy of the scaly buds. The microspore underwent mitotic division at the time when the flower bud reached the length of the scale. In summary,the process of apricot pollen development lasted 4.5 months,and the exclusive features included the coincidence between the microsporogenesis and the winter dormancy of the scaly buds,the accumulation of lipid droplets in the microspore mother cell,and that the first mitotic division of male gametophyte was marked by the growth of the flower bud to the length of the scale.

Key words: apricot, pollen, anther wall, embryology