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园艺学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 437-446.doi: S 664.1

• 果树 • 上一篇    下一篇

氮肥形态及配比对铁核桃根际环境及幼苗生长的影响

樊卫国*,罗 燕,吴素芳,葛会敏   

  1. 贵州省果树工程技术研究中心,贵州大学喀斯特山地果树资源研究所,贵阳 550025
  • 出版日期:2014-03-25 发布日期:2014-03-25
  • 基金资助:

    贵州省农业科技攻关计划项目(黔科合NY 字2007-3038);贵州省农业工程技术研究中心资助计划项目(黔科合农G 字
    2009-4003);贵州省特色农业产业人才基地计划项目(黔人领发2013-16)

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Forms and Ratios on Rhizospheric Environment
and Growth of the Juglans sigillata Seedlings

FAN Wei-guo*,LUO Yan,WU Su-fang,and GE Hui-min   

  1. Guizhou Fruits Engineering Technology Research Centre,Research Institute for Fruit Resources of Karst Mountain
    Region,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China
  • Online:2014-03-25 Published:2014-03-25

摘要: 为了探索不同形态及配比的氮肥对铁核桃(Juglans sigillata Dode.)根际生态因子的影响,
为施肥提供科学依据,采用土壤盆栽试验方法,以铵态氮(NH4
+-N)、硝态氮(NO3
--N)和酰胺态氮[CO(NH2)2]
为氮源,研究氮肥形态及配比对实生苗生长和根际土壤中低分子量有机酸含量、微生物数量及多种酶活
性的影响。结果表明:混施等比例NH4
+-N 和NO3
--N 的实生苗株高、基径、植株的鲜质量及地上部和根
系的鲜质量都最大(P < 0.05),分别为58.03 cm、18.21 mm、238.19 g、147.68 g 和90.51 g,根际土壤中
有机酸总量和细菌、真菌、放线菌的数量及微生物多样性指数显著高于其它处理,分别为16.72 μg · g-1 FW、
592.00 × 105 CFU · g-1、34.33 × 104 CFU · g-1、19.33 × 105 CFU · g-1 和0.1738;酸性磷酸酶、中性磷酸酶、
碱性磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和淀粉酶的活性最强(P < 0.05),分别为9.54、0.24、3.60、61.98 和8.03 mg · g-1。
单一施CO(NH2)2、NO3
--N、NH4
+-N 会降低根际土壤中有机酸含量、微生物数量和微生物多样性指数。在
混施NH4
+-N 和NO3
--N 的情况下增加NO3
--N 比例会明显降低根际土壤蛋白酶活性。根际土壤中细菌、真
菌和放线菌的数量与中性磷酸酶、碱性磷酸酶、硝酸还原酶、蔗糖酶和淀粉酶活性呈显著或极显著正相
关;细菌数量与酸性磷酸酶活性呈显著正相关;有机酸总量与脲酶、中性磷酸酶、碱性磷酸酶、硝酸还
原酶、蔗糖酶和淀粉酶的活性及微生物数量呈显著或极显著正相关;微生物数量及有机酸总量与过氧化
氢酶呈极显著负相关。混施等比例的NH4
+-N 和NO3
--N 能够改善铁核桃根际生态环境,促进实生苗的生
长。

关键词: 铁核桃, 实生苗, 氮肥形态, 根际, 有机酸, 土壤酶, 微生物

Abstract: Effects of different forms and ratios of nitrogen fertilizers on rhizospheric ecological
factors of the Juglans sigillata Dode were investigated. The objective of the present study was to provide a
scientific foundation for fertilizer application. Using NH4+-N,NO3--N and CO(NH2)2 as nitrogen sources,pot experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer forms and ratios on
organic acids with low molecular weight,microorganism and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of the J.
sigillata Dode seedlings. Further,the correlation among organic acids,microorganism and enzyme
activities was analyzed as well. The obtained results showed that under the mixed supply of NO3--N and NH4+-N at same ratio,the plant height,stem base diameter,plant wet weight,shoots wet weight and roots
wet weight of the seedlings were the largest,the values of them were 58.03 cm,18.21 mm,238.19 g,
147.68 g and 90.51 g,respectively. Significant differences(P < 0.05)with other treatments were shown.
The total content of organic acids,the amounts of bacteria,fungi,actinomycetes and microbial diversity
indices were also the largest,they were 16.72 μg · g-1 FW,592.00 ×105 CFU · g-1,34.33 × 104 CFU · g-1,
19.33 × 105 CFU · g-1 and 0.1738,respectively,significantly higher than other treatments. The activity of
acid phosphatase,neutral phosphatase,alkaline phosphatase,sucrase and diastase were the strongest,they
were 9.54,0.24,3.60,61.98 and 8.03 mg · g-1,respectively. Compared with other treatments,the
significant differences(P < 0.05)also existed. The sole supply of CO(NH2)2,NO3--N or NH4+-N went
against the increase of the organic acids content,microorganism amount and microbial J.sigillata Dode
seedlings was reduced while the ratio of NO3--N was increased. However,the extremely significant
positive correlation among the amount of bacteria,fungi,actinomyces and the activity of neutral diversity
indices. Under the mixed supply of NH4+-N and NO3--N,the protease activity in rhizosphere soil of the
phosphatase,alkaline phosphatase,nitrate reductase,sucrase and diastase were clearly displayed.
Significant positive correlation among bacteria amount and acid phosphatase activity was found in this
study. Also,the positive correlation among the total content of organic acids and the activity of urase,
neutral phosphatase,alkaline phosphatase,nitrate reductase,sucrase and diastase and microorganism
amount were extremely significant. Meanwhile,the extremely significant negative correlation among
microorganism amount,the total content of organic acids and catalase were found. The present results
indicated that application of mixed forms of NO3--N and NH4+-N at same ratio,the rhizosphere
environment was obviously improved and the growth of the Juglans sigillata Dode seedlings was
significantly promoted.  

Key words: Juglans sigillata, seedling, nitrogen fertilizer forms, rhizosphere, organic acids, soil enzyme, microorganism