园艺学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (9): 1715-1716.doi: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2020-0103

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邹学校1,*,马艳青2,戴雄泽1,李雪峰2,杨 莎2   

  1. (1湖南农业大学,园艺作物种质创新与新品种选育教育部工程研究中心,长沙 410128;2湖南省蔬菜研究所,长沙410125)
  • 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-09-25

Spread and Industry Development of Pepper in China

ZOU Xuexiao1,*,MA Yanqing2,DAI Xiongze1,LI Xuefeng2,and YANG Sha2   

  1. (1Engineering Research Center of Education Ministry for Germplasm Innovation and Breeding New Varieties of Horticultural Crops,Hunan Agricultural University,Changsha 410128,China;2Hunan Vegetable Research Institute,Changsha 410125,China)
  • Online:2020-09-25 Published:2020-09-25

摘要: 辣椒(Capsicum spp.)原产中南美洲,16世纪后期传入中国。本文中介绍了辣椒在世界的传播路径,考证了辣椒在中国的传播途径。一年生辣椒(C. annuum L.)从浙江传入中国后,先传到华北,再到湖南和辽宁,湖南作为次级传播中心,迅速向西南、西北及周边地区扩散,形成长江中上游嗜辣区,华北、东北、西北微辣区,华东、华南沿海淡辣区。灌木辣椒(C. frutescens L.)和中国辣椒(C. chinense Jacq.)从中国台湾传入,再从台湾传到海南和云南。探明了辣椒传播的动因。回顾了辣椒在中国400多年的发展历程;阐明了辣椒在不同历史阶段从观赏植物到调味品作物,再到蔬菜作物,其身份、地位转换的演进过程。介绍了辣椒在中国的产业功能、应用价值和产业规模;分析了辣椒的产业地位、优势和发展前景。

Abstract: Pepper(Capsicum spp.),originating in Central and South America,was introduced into China in the 16th century. Here discussed the spreading path of pepper across the world and provide evidence supporting its spreading route in China. After introduced into China through Zhejiang Province,C. annuum L. was first brought to North China,then to Liaoning and Hunan,and from Hunan rapidly spread to Southwest China,Northwest China and the surrounding regions,forming the spicy area in the upper and middle reaches of Yangtze River,the mild spicy area in North China,Northeast China and Northwest China,and slightly spicy area in the coastal region of East and South China. C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq. was first introduced into China through Taiwan,then from Taiwan to Hainan and Yunnan. The motivation underlying the pepper spread in China was discussed,and its spread and cultivation history in China during the past 400 years was reviewed. Described how pepper has evolved from an ornamental crop,to a condiment crop,and now a major vegetable crop,and discussed the industrial function,value and scale of pepper in China as well as its industry position,advantage and prospect.