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园艺学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (12): 2489-2496.doi:

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

柑橘落花落果的营养元素含量及其脱落损耗

 王男麒, 彭良志, 邢飞, 周薇, 曹立, 黄翼, 江才伦   

  1. (1 西南大学柑桔研究所/国家柑桔工程技术研究中心,重庆 400712;2 西南大学园艺园林学院,重庆 400700)
  • 出版日期:2013-12-25 发布日期:2013-12-25

Nutrient Element Content in Dropped Flowers and Young Fruits and Nutrient Losses Caused by Their Drops in Citrus

WANG  Nan-Qi, PENG  Liang-Zhi, XING  Fei, ZHOU  Wei, CAO  Li, HUANG  Yi, JIANG  Cai-Lun   

  1. (1Citrus Research Institute,Southwest University/National Citrus Engineering Research Center,Chongqing 400712,
    China;2College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture,Southwest University,Chongqing 400700,China)
  • Online:2013-12-25 Published:2013-12-25

摘要: 以成年纽荷尔脐橙、兴津温州蜜柑和沙田柚为材料,研究落蕾、落花和脱落幼果中的养分
含量及其脱落造成的损耗。结果表明,3 个品种的蕾和花营养元素含量为N 3.34% ~ 3.66%,P 0.26% ~
0.31%,K 1.67% ~ 2.30%,Ca、Mg 和S 含量0.17% ~ 0.48%,Fe、Mn、Zn、Cu 和B 含量8.1 ~ 87.5 mg · kg-1
除花的B 含量显著高于蕾外,花和蕾的多数营养元素含量相近,且品种间差异小。与蕾和花相比,幼果
的N 和P 含量较少,N 和P 含量分别少21.8%和19.5%,但Fe 含量较多,其它营养元素含量变化不明显。
纽荷尔脐橙、兴津温州蜜柑和沙田柚单株脱落的蕾、花和幼果干物质量合计分别为3 016.3 g、3 533.6 g
和1 486.7 g,由此所造成的单株主要养分损耗为N 49.2 ~ 119.4 g、P 4.3 ~ 10.1 g、K 30.1 ~ 76.2 g、Mg 2.5 ~
7.1 g、Zn 24.0 ~ 81.5 mg 和B 65.5 ~ 170.2 mg。兴津温州蜜柑和沙田柚均以落花的养分损耗最大,落蕾其
次,落果最小;纽荷尔脐橙则是落花和落蕾的养分损耗相近且远高于落果。品种间以兴津温州蜜柑脱落
的养分损耗最大,纽荷尔脐橙其次,沙田柚最小。因此,柑橘应控制过量开花,并在萌芽开花期及时补
充养分。

关键词: 柑橘, 花蕾, 花, 幼果, 营养元素

Abstract: Nutrient element content in dropped flower buds,flowers and young fruits as well as the
nutrient losses caused by their drops were studied in Newhall navel orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osb.
‘Newhall’),Okitsu Wase satsuma(Citrus unshiu Marc.‘Okitsu Wase’)and Shatian pomelo(Citrus
grandis Osb.‘Shatian’)adult trees. Results showed that the nutrient element content in flower buds and
flowers of the 3 varieties were N 3.34%–3.66%;P 0.26%–0.31%;K 1.67%–2.30%;Ca,Mg and S
content were 0.17%–0.48%;Fe,Mn,Zn,Cu and B content were 8.1–87.5 mg · kg-1. B content was
significantly higher in flowers than in flower buds,but other nutrient element content in flowers were close
to in flower buds. For the same organs,the content of each nutrient element was slightly different among the 3 varieties. Compared with flower buds and flowers,N and P content in young fruits greatly
decreased and Fe content increased obviously,while the average decreases by 21.8% N and 19.5% P were
measured for the 3 varieties,but the changes of other nutrient element content were not remarkable. The
total dry weight of dropped flower buds,flowers and young fruits was 3 016.3 g per tree for Newhall navel
orange,3 533.6 g per tree for Okitsu Wase satsuma,and 1 486.7 g per tree for Shatian pomelo,which
resulted in serious nutrient element losses of N 49.2–119.4 g,P 4.3–10.1 g,K 30.1–76.2 g,Mg 2.5–7.1
g,Zn 24.0–81.5 mg and B 65.5–170.2 mg for per tree. The losses of nutrient element caused by flower
drops > by flower bud drops > by young fruit drops for Okitsu Wase satsuma and Shatian pomelo,while
caused by flower bud drops were close to by flower drops > by young fruit drops for Newhall navel orange.
Okitsu Wase satsuma had the biggest losses of nutrient element caused by those drops,followed by
Newhall navel orange and Shatian pomelo. Therefore,for citrus management practices,it’s important to
control excessive flowering,and to apply enough fertilizers during spring sprout and blossoms.

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